Obras generales y misceláneas

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA

DEL ECUADOR

Vol. I

por

MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

HISTORIA

OBRAS GENERALES Y MISCELANEAS

The first general history of Ecuador was Father Juan de Velasco's Historia del Reino de Quito. Completed in 1789, while he was in exile in Faenza, the expelled Jesuit's work was not published until nearly a half century after his death in a less than satisfactory version (Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1841- 1844; 3 v.), and had to wait almost two centuries to be published in scholarly acceptable versions (see items 540 and 1532). The next attempt at a general history was Pedro Fermín Cevallos's six volume Resumen de la historia del Ecuador (Lima, 1870-1873; 2 ed. rev., Guayaquil, 1886- Lima, 1888), for the specifics of which see items 553 and 554. Only two other writer-makers of history produced general histories during the nineteenth century, Francisco Xavier Aguirre Abad and Federico González Suárez. Aguirre Abad's Bosquejo histórico did not appear until many years after his death too (see item 529), and González Suárez's eight volume Historia general de la República del Ecuador (item 1388) advanced only as far as the late colonial period.

The twentieth century saw a number of general histories, ranging from one volume essays to multi-authored as well as multivolume sets. Among the "shorter" works, undoubtedly the best was: Leopoldo Benites Vinueza's Ecuador, drama y paradoja (item 537). The most comprehensive and scholarly of the multivolume histories was the truly new Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615). Also important was Piedad Peñaherrera de Costales and Alfredo Costales Samaniego's pioneering four volume Historia social del Ecuador (item 620).

A number of high school or upper form and university texts--some of which are important as syntheses or because of their influence upon one or more generations of students and scholars--appeared in the twentieth century too. At the risk of being invidious, the most noteworthy were: Gabriel Cevallos García's Historia del Ecuador (item 555); and Oscar Efrén Reyes's Breve historia general del Ecuador (item 636).

Until the 1960s, the writing of history was dominated by amateurs and autodidacts. For the most part they limited themselves to political, ecclesiastical, and cultural developments. In the 1970s and 1980s, however, a cadre of professionally trained scholars, exemplified by the producers of the Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), with different interests and new approaches to the past, started to come into their own. By "new history" is meant not just demographic history, economic history, ethnohistory, and/or social history but the borrowing of methodologies and models from practitioners of the Social Sciences. By the 1990s, the subjugation of the past to professionally albeit at times awkwardly manipulated lenses and its filtering through a myriad of Social Scientific paradigms appears to have been in ascendency and to have begun the process of eclipsing the amateur and autodidactic studies that had previously slighted albeit not ignored altogether socioeconomic events and developments in their multiple aspects. Nonetheless, the amateurs and autodidacts continued to find outlets for their work, even if this meant establishing new journals such as Revista de la Sociedad de Amigos de la Genealogía or Revista del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealógicas y Antropológicas.

There was no comprehensive, "up-to-date" history of Ecuador in English as of the late 1990s, but the assiduous reader could piece one together, more or less, from: the bilingual but difficult to obtain edition of Cevallos García's Historia nacional del Ecuador (item 556); C. Reginald Enock's early twentieth-century Ecuador (item 575); Lowry Walker's regrettably rare Tumult at Dusk (item 600); Magnus Mörner's The Andean Past (item 608); Frederick B. Pike's The United States and the Andean Republics: Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador (item 1965); and Victor Wolfgang Von Hagen's Ecuador and the Galápagos Islands (item 657).

Turning to the auxiliary disciplines, the multivolume, not yet complete (as of Dec. 1999) Geografía básica del Ecuador (item 581) is highly recommended. As are also two superb historical geographic studies: Jean-Paul Deler's Genèse de l'espace équatorien (item 564) and Alain Dubly's Los poblados del Ecuador (item 568). The ethnohistory of the country had become somewhat better known than it used to be. See especially items 539 and 607.

527. Actas del primer Congreso de Historia del Negro en el Ecuador y Sur de Colombia: Esmeraldas 14-16 de Octubre, 1988: VI Jornadas Nacionales, V Internacionales de Genealogía e Historia Social, coordinador: Rafael Savoia, 1 ed. Quito: Edición Centro Cultural Afro-Ecuatoriano, Departamento de Pastoral Afro-Ecuatoriano, 1988. 272 p. (Colección CCA; vol. 1) (Colección SAG; t. 38)

Contents: Pedro Porras Garcés, "Evidencias arqueológicas sobre la presencia del hombre de raza negra en la prehistoria ecuatoriana" (p. 15-28); Rafael Savoia, "El negro Alonso de Illescas y sus descendientes (entre 1553-1867)" (p. 29-62); Rafael Savoia, "Asentamientos nebros en el norte de la Provincia de Esmeraldas (1761-1825)" (p. 63-80); Alfonso Castro Chiriboga, "Revolución de Concha" (p. 81-86); José Mayorga Barona, "Los Pimentel de Esmeraldas: síntesis de u cuádruplo fluido étnico" (p. 87-111); Ezio Garay Arellano, "La élite económica de los negros de Guayaquil de 1742 a 1765" (p. 113-121); Ezio Garay Arellano, "Los negros en Guayaquil en 1850" (p. 123-133); Fernando Jurado Noboa, "El aporte de Africa a la historia y a la genealogía ecuatorianas" (p. 135-152); Fernando Jurado Noboa, "Presidentes del Ecuador con ancestro africano" (p. 153-169); Rosario Coronel, "Indios y esclavos negros en el Valle del Chota colonial" (p. 171-187); Leopoldo Jibaja Rubio, "Casos de compra y venta de esclavos en la sierra ecuatoriana (1778-1838)" (p. 189-192); Gerardo Andrade González, "Aprecio económico y desprecio social del negro" (p. 193-225); Francisco U. Zuluaga R., "Cimarronismo en el sur-occidente del antiguo Virreinato de Santa Fé de Bogotá" (p. 227-243); Narciso Binayán Carmona, "Nobles negros esclavos" (p. 245-261).

See also items 612 and 613.

528. Aguilar Paredes, Jaime. Páginas cívicas de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. del Colegio Técnico "Don Bosco," 1976. 357 p.

529. Aguirre Abad, Francisco X. Bosquejo histórico de la República del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, Sección de Investigaciones Histórico-Jurídicas, 1972. 510 p. (Anuario histórico jurídico ecuatoriano; 3)

First edition of a late nineteenth-century history of Ecuador by a writer-maker of history. Important for eye witness testimony as well as coeval perspective.

530. Alcina Franch, José. "El proceso de pérdida de la identidad cultural entre los indios del Ecuador," Cuadernos hispanoamericanos, 428 (1986), 91-108.

Examines the progressive disappearance of distinct Indian groups through the accumulated assault of three different forces, the Inca invasion, the Spanish conquest, and the industrial era.

531. Arias, Augusto. Obras selectas. Quito: Edit. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1962. 950 p.

Partial contents: "Mariana de Jesús" (1929); "El cristal indígena" (1934); "Vida de Pedro Fermín Cevallos" (1946); "Luis A. Martínez" (1937); "Mujeres de Quito" (1934); "El Quijote de Montalvo" (1948); "España en los Andes" (1950); "Almas y lugares."

532. Arosemena, Guillermo. El comercio exterior del Ecuador, 1 ed. Guayaquil: G. Arosemena, 1992-1993. 3 v.

A noteworthy attempt to quantify the export sector of the economy from the late 1500s through the 1980s.

Contents: vol. 1, Período colonial: la Audiencia de Quito; vol. 2, Período republicano, 1821-1920; vol. 3, Período contemporáneo, 1921-1990.

533. Ayala Mora, Enrique. "Periodización de la historia del Ecuador," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 13, p. 213-250.

An explanation and justification of the periodization adopted in the Nueva historia. At the same time an important statement as to how the "new" historians of the late-twentieth century view the watersheds of their past.

534. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Resumen de la historia del Ecuador, 1 ed. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1993. 162 p.

A brief but cogent and insightful overview.

535. La Balsa en la historia de la navegación ecuatoriana: compilación de crónicas, estudios, gráficas y testimonios, Jenny Estrada [compiladora]. Guayaquil: Armada del Ecuador, 1990. 383 p.

536. Barrera, Isaac J. "Historia mínima de la nación y de la República del Ecuador," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 34:84 (jul./dic. 1954), 231-245.

Originally published in English as "From Theocracy to Democracy," in: Ecuador, Andean Mosaic (item 569). Barrera's only overview of the history of his country, from Huayna Capac's alleged division of the Tahuantinsuyu between Huascar and Atahualpa through the election of Galo Plaza Laso to the presidency of the republic.

537. Benites Vinueza, Leopoldo. Ecuador, drama y paradoja, 1 ed. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1950. 280 p.

A delightfully written survey of the history of Ecuador. Dated but still very much worth reading. Especially noteworthy as a pioneering attempt to relate economic and social to political developments. Also Benites Vinueza was one of the first Ecuadorian scholars to focus on "the people" as protagonist. At the same time, however, it should be noted that his characterization of el pueblo was somewhat simplistic.

538. Benites Vinueza, Leopoldo. Ecuador, drama y paradoja, 2 ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Corporación Editora Nacional, 1986. 326 p. (Biblioteca básica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 28)

Includes a biobibliographical study by Simón Espinosa Cordero.

539. Benitez, Lilyan; and Alicia Garcés. Culturas ecuatorianas: ayer y hoy, 3 ed., corr. y aum. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1988. 231 p.

A useful introduction to indigenous and other ethnic groups and their cultures of the country on the eve of the Spanish conquest, on the one hand, and as of late-twentieth century, on the other.

540. Biblioteca ecuatoriana mínima. Puebla, México: Cajica, 1959-1960. 29 v.

Issued under the auspices of the General Secretariat of the 11th Inter-American Conference, supposed to have been held in Quito in 1960, this unnumbered set is a cornucopia of mostly national writers of the colonial, independence, and national periods.

Contents: [1] Visión teórica del Ecuador; [2] El Arte ecuatoriano, [3-4] Cronistas coloniales; [5] Historiadores y cronistas de las misiones; [6] Fray Gaspar de Villarroel; [7] Los Dos primeros poetas coloniales ecuatorianos; [8] Los Jesuitas quiteños del extrañamiento; [9-10] Padre Juan de Velasco, S.I.; [[11] Prosistas de la colonia; [12] Precursores; [13] El Ecuador visto por los extranjeros; [14-15] José Joaquín Olmedo; [16] Juan Montalvo; [17] Cronistas de la independencia y de la República; [18] Escritores políticos; [19] Prosistas de la República; [20] Pedro Fermín Cevallos; [21] Historiadores y críticos literarios; [22] Federico González Suárez; [23] Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño; [24] Juristas y sociólogos; [25] Novelistas y narradores; [26] Poetas románticos y neoclásicos; [27] Remigio Crespo Toral; [28] Poetas parnasianos y modernistas; and [29] Poesía popular, alcances y apendice; Indices.

Reprinted in 1989 as Biblioteca ecuatoriana clásica by the Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones.

541. Bork, Albert William; and Georg Maier. Historical Dictionary of Ecuador. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1973. 192 p.

Superficial in coverage and riddled with errors.

542. Bossano, Guillermo. Disertaciones. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1979. 209 p.

543. Bossano, Guillermo. Mensaje de ecuatorianidad, 2 ed. Quito: Edit. "Fr. Jodoco Ricke," 1973. xiii, 329 p.

Bossano' mensajes, not mensaje inasmuch as this work is a compendium of patriotic and political discourses, are those of a white, middle class, traditional liberal on the one hand and of an attorney and pedagogue on the other. These discourses. almost all of which date from the 1960s, should be read as primary sources insofar as the development of white, middle class, liberal mentality vis-a-vis national politics and personages, historic and contemporary, during the second third of the twentieth century or thereabouts, and on the Ateneo Ecuatoriano, founded in 1938 and of which Bossano (1920-) was a leading and long term member, are concerned.

544. Bossano, Guillermo. Vicisitudes de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana: mirajes histórico-sociológicos de la conquista a través del proceso vital patrio, 3 ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1975. 256 p.

Originally published: Quito: [s.n.], 1949. 180 p. "Tesis universitaria previa a la incorporación al cuerpo de abogados de la República." Nominally a review of the origins of the Kingdom of Quito or "nation" of Ecuador in the prehispanic period, beginning with the Scyri and continuing through the Inca conquest, the Spanish conquest, the 10 de agosto, etc. In this work Bossano confuses nation with country and myth with history. Apparently the reason for this work's popularity lies in Bossano's application of legends and traditions to the defense of Ecuador's right to the territory permanently lost to Peru in 1941. Without meaning to denigrate the importance or even the vital role legends and traditions play in societies, I wish to make it clear that Bossano's Vicisitudes de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana belongs to the deplorable genre that interprets mythos literally and has little, if any, use for logos.

545. Bromley, R.J. "Precolonial Trade and the Transition to a Colonial Market System in the Audiencia of Quito," Nova americana, 1 (1978), 269-283.

Discusses patterns of trade prior to the Spanish conquest and examines the "transition" from the indigenous to the European system of trade and markets during the colonial period. Based on archival research as well as published materials. Also published in Spanish as: "El comercio precolonial y la transición a un sistema de mercado colonial en la Audiencia de Quito," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 1:1 (primer semestre 1987), 41-58.

546. Burgos, Dalton. Historia de las luchas populares. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Difusión Social, CEDIS, 1985-1988. 5 v.

The statement of responsibility appears on the inside of the front cover of this works. In fascículos 1-4, it reads: "Textos: Dalton Burgos"; "Ayudante de investigación: Eduardo Villacís"+ Dibujos y diagramación: Chicho". The research assistant statement is dropped in fascículo 5. I have no idea whether "Chicho" is a nickname, a pseudonym, a "nom de artiste," or a last name.

This is an interesting work. It was an attempt by CEDIS "rescatar a través de estos folletos ... esa estampa tenaz de los pueblos que grabó la historia en el tiempo, esa presencia de hombres y mujeres humildes y sencillos que erigió a líderes y héroes ..." Unfortunately, it does not succeed in being a history of the crowd, partly because of the limitations of the historiography on which it was necessarily based, partly because little or no effort was made to undertake the original research that would have been required to produce such a study, partly because Dalton and CEDIS's approach is not just didactic but simplistic. Nonetheless, Historia de las luchas populares is important for two reasons: 1) It provides a more or less detailed chronology of popular movements (through 1984) that serves as a checklist, so to speak, of uprisings, "rebellions," strikes, etc. that for the most part remain in need of detailed study, multivariant analysis, and comprehensive interpretation; and 2) many of the illustrations, especially the photographs, are revealing.

Contents: fac. 1, De la conquista a la independencia (42 p.); fac. 2, De inicios de la República a la revolución liberal (30 p.); fac. 3, De la revolución liberal a la masacre de 1922 (37 p.); fac. 4, De la revolución juliana a la "gloriosa" de 1944 (36 p.); fac. 5, De la constituyente de 1945 a nuestros días (52 p.).

547. Cameron, Ian. Kingdom of the Sun God: A History of the Andes and Their People. New York: Facts on File, 1990. 224 p.

A general history of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia from prehispanic times through the 1980s. Light reading for the casual reader.

548. Carrión, Alejandro. La otra historia, 2 ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1983. 189 p.

The anecdotal, "hidden," and more often than not, the "seamier" side of the past.

549. Carrión, Benjamín. El cuento de la patria: (breve historia del Ecuador), 2 ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1973. 320 p.

Unfortunately there are three deplorable aspects of altogether too much of what passes for historical scholarship in Ecuador, of which this work is a classic example: 1) the substitution of fact for fiction; 2) the substitution of armchair reading for archival and field research; and 3) the substitution of the well turned phrase for analysis and interpretation. A single quotation from Carrión suffices to demonstrate my point: "25 de junio de 1795 [sic]: La sublevación de los barrios de Quito. Con la Revolución de las Alcabalas, este es un acto de presencia heroico y multitudinario, en el cual, aún los miembros de la nobleza criolla, secundaron la insurrección justiciera del pueblo" (p. 315). The intelligentsia responsible for these historiographical defects, from the point of view of an unreconstructed modernist, consider them to be virtues. Again according to Carrión, "Pienso yo--y he tratado de sustentarlo--que las patrias se nutren y mantienen más de la leyenda que de la historia" (p. 7).

I hasten to add that El cuento de la patria should be read, nonetheless, but as ideological discourse, not as historical discourse. Originally published by the Edit Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana in 1967 in 237 pages , and reprinted by Libresa in Quito in 1992 in 275 pages.

550. Carrión, Fernando. "Evolución del espacio urbano ecuatoriano," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 12, p. 37-72.

A schematic analysis of the role of cities from the Spanish conquest through the census of 1982. Divided into two macro-periods, "1534-1895" and "1895-1983."

551. Carrión, Germán. Ecuador fundamental. Guayaquil: A.G. Senefelder, 1980. 247 p.

Amenably written Ecuador fundamental should be read not as an introduction to the geography and history of the country but as yet another example of the extent to which myth and tradition continue to permeate the mentality of middle and upper class Ecuadorians, including not only the university educated but also university educators, including the author of this work.

552. Cevallos, Pedro Fermín. Resumen de la historia del Ecuador: desde su origen hasta 1845. Lima: Impr. del Estado, 1870-1873. 6 v.

See under 553.

553. Cevallos, Pedro Fermín. Resumen de la historia del Ecuador: desde su origen hasta 1845, 2 ed. rev. Guayaquil: Impr. de la Nación, 1886-Lima: Impr. del Estado, 1888. 6 v.

A classic history of the country through 1845. Primarily political in coverage with some attention paid to economic and social developments, however, especially in vol. 6. Listed under Ceballos in some library catalogs, including the Library of Congress's Catalog of Printed Cards, for no valid reason. The first edition (item 552) included the rare Geografía política (t. 6; Lima, 1873)--a copy of which I have seen in the private library of Dr. Miguel Díaz Cueva. Tomo 6 of the original edition was withdrawn by Cevallos before more than a few copies could circulate because he was dissatisfied with it.; it was retitled Geografía de la República del Ecuador in the 2 ed.

The 2 ed. is available in several reprints (e.g.: Historia del Ecuador. Ambato: El Municipio, 1985-1986) Selections from the work as a whole were published as: Pedro Fermín Cevallos, estudio y selecciones de Isaac J. Barrera. Puebla: Edit. J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1959. 517 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mínima; [18])

A digest in the form of a catechism, Compendio de la historia del Ecuador, was supposed to have been adopted as an official text in the national school system in 1871, nominally a tribute to his "objectivity." That the conservative García Moreno should adopt the work of a conservative intellectual, however, is not surprising. The earliest edition of the Compendio that I have been able to verify, however, dates from 1879: Quito: Impr. del Clero. 435 p.

554. Cevallos, Pedro Fermín. Instituciones del derecho práctico ecuatoriano. Quito: Impr. de los Huérfanos de Valencia, 1867. iii, 349 p.

The multifaceted Cevallos was also a practicing attorney. It is not surprising therefore that he should have produced a treatise on contemporary legal practices, as much Hispanic and Napoleonic in origin as sui generis. This work is also a commentary on the political system of the times.

555. Cevallos García, Gabriel. Historia del Ecuador: texto. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigaciones y Cultura, 1987. 645 p. (Obras completas, Gabriel Cevallos García; 3)

Reprint; originally published: Cuenca, 1967. A standard upper form/junior college level text. Nonetheless, a solid survey of developments and events through the early 1960s.

556. Cevallos García, Gabriel. Historia nacional del Ecuador, edición bilingüe = bilingual edition. Cuenca: Romlacio Editor, [1992?]. 399 p.: ill.

A bilingual edition of what has become a standard history of Ecuador (item 555). Includes a section on the prehistory of the country by Juan Cordero Iñiguez. Chronologically updated by Antonio Lloret Bastidas. Enriched with appropriate illustrations.

557. Cevallos García, Gabriel. Visión teórica del Ecuador. Puebla, México: Cajica, 1959. 627 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mínima; [1])

A thought provoking, occasionally brilliant essay on how Ecuador came into being ("Integración del territorio"), what it means to be "Ecuadorian" ("Configuración del hombre"), and how Ecuador became as nation state and what Ecuador had become as of the mid-twentieth century ("Para entender bien al Ecuador"). Of course, it has to be understood that the Ecuador in question is that of the blanco and the mestizo who consider him/herself to be and is considered to be a blanco and the "Ecuadorian," the blanco and the mestizo who "functions" as a blanco. See also items 216 and 217. Reprinted: Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigaciones y Cultura, 1987.

558. Las Ciudades en la historia, Eduardo Kingman Garcés, coordinador; Lucas Achig [et al.]. Quito: CIUDAD, 1989. 456 p.

Publishes some of the papers presented at the "Seminario 'Las Ciudades en la Historia' realizado en noviembre de 1987 con los auspicios del Consejo Nacional de Universidades y Escuelas Politécnicas, la Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad Central, la Asociación de Historiadores del Ecuador, el CIID de Canadá, la Fundación Quito y el Centro de Investigaciones CIUDAD, institución a cargo de la cual estuvo la organización del evento." All but one of the published papers have to do with the history of cities and towns in Ecuador, the state of which several of the ponencias here within included considerably enhanced.

Partial contents: Antonio Narváez R. "Quito: la conquista del territorio de la ciudad" (p. 25-43); Víctor Hugo Torres, "Los municipios ecuatorianos: historia de una derrota" (p. 45-57); Galo Ramón, "El territorio y los asentamientos en las sociedades norandinas" (p. 81-134); Inés del Pino, "Características de la arquitectura prehispánica del Ecuador" (p. 135-157); Alfonso Ortiz Crespo, "Visión general de las fundaciones y del urbanismo colonial español en el territorio de la antigua Audiencia de Quito" (p. 161-186); Jorge Benavides Solís, "El urbanismo en el Ecuador: los orígenes de Quito" (p. 187-206); Iván González, "Los orígenes urbanos de Cuenca" (p. 207-229); Rubén Moreira V., "Ecuador: transformaciones urbanas y arquitectónicas en la primera mitad del siglo XX" (p. 233-247); Manuel Chiriboga V., "Ciudad y campo en la costa durante el período cacaotero" (p. 249-255); Ramón Gutiérrez, "La nueva Guayaquil entre la utopía y la modelística" (p. 257-267); Rosa Ferrín Schettini, "Rol del capital comercial y usurario en el desarrollo de Bahía de Caráquez" (p. 269-294); Gaitán Villavicencio [y] Henry [i.e., Henri] Godard, "Modernización agrícola y debilidad del poder municipal: el caso de Quevedo" (p. 297-310); Lucas Achig [y] Fernando Landívar, "El proceso de crecimiento urbano de Macas" (p. 311-323); Carlos Larrea Maldonado, "Agroexportación y estructura social en Machala: 1948-1984" (p. 325-340); Martha Moscoso C., "Indígenas y ciudades en el siglo XVI" (p. 343-356); Eduardo Francisco Kingman G., Ana María Goetchel, [y] Cecilia Mantilla, "Obras públicas y fuerza de trabajo indígena: (el caso de la provincia de Pichincha)" (p. 357-383); César Hermida Bustos [y] María Eugenia Castelo, "Los hospitales de Quito: caracterización histórico geográfica (inicial)" (p.387-395); Ana María Goetschel [y] Eduardo Kingman G., "La participación de los indígenas en las obras públicas y los servicios de la ciudad de Quito, en el último tercio del siglo XIX" (p. 397-403); Carlos Ortiz Arellano, "Riobamba en la primera mitad del siglo XX" (p. 405-418); Nicolás Kingman, "El humor de los quiteños" (p. 419-422); Adrian Carrasco Vintimilla [y] Claudio Cordero Espinosa, "Testimonio de la transición de una sociedad patriarcal a la sociedad burguesa en Cuenca: La Escoba" (p. 423-456).

559. Congreso Nacional de Historia y Geografía del Ecuador (5: 1986: Cuenca, Ecuador) Memorias del V Congreso Nacional de Historia y Geografía del Ecuador, Cuenca, 10-13 de diciembre de 1986. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1987. 412 p.

560. Cooper, John. Historia de la oveja en el Ecuador. Quito: Universidad Central, 1952. 21 p.

561. Costales Samaniego, Alfredo; and Piedad Peñaherrera de Costales. Los señores naturales de la tierra. Quito: Xerox del Ecuador, 1982. 256 p. (i.e., p. 1-256)

A study of pre- and post-conquest kurakas, more commonly known as caciques in Ecuador.

Published together with: Fernando Jurado Noboa's Las coyas y pallas del Tahuantinsuyo: su descendencia en el Ecuador hasta 1900 (item 3309).

562. Chiriboga N., Angel Isaac. "Ejército y Marina del Ecuador," El Ecuador en cien años de independencia (item 1926), vol. 1, p. 261-274.

A précis of the history and official perception of the Armed Forces from prehispanic times through the 1920s. Reprinted in: Indianistas, indianófilos, indigenistas (item 7946), p. 639-676.

563. De la Torre Reyes, Carlos. Ensayos. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1989. 2 v.

A potpourri of miscellaneous essays on the history, politics, and art of Ecuador and of Latin America at large.

564. Deler, Jean-Paul. Genèse de l'espace équatorien: Essai sur le territoire et la formation de l'état national. Lima: Institut français d'études andines; Paris: Editions A.D.P.F., 1981. 279 p. (Travaux de l'Institut français d'etudes andines; t. 22)

A superb historical geography. The pioneering work in this genre for Ecuador. Interpretative as well as analytical. Mandatory reading. Also published in Spanish as: Ecuador, del espacio al estado nacional. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1987. 341 p. (Biblioteca de geografía ecuatoriana; vol. 2)

565. Deler, Jean-Paul; Michel Portais; and Nelson Gomez E. El Manejo del espacio en el Ecuador: etapas claves. Quito: CEDIG, Centro Ecuatoriano de Investigación Geográfica, 1983. 239 p. (Geografía básica del Ecuador; t. 1)

Also a historical geography of Ecuador, but not as detailed as item 564.

566. Demélas, Marie-Danielle; and Yves Saint-Geours. Jerusalén y Babilonia: religión y política en el Ecuador, 1780-1880. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional; Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos, 1988. 222 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 21)

A novel study of the role of ideas, especially but hardly exclusively religious beliefs, in the political culture of the late colonial, independence, and early modern periods. The authors focus on the Quito rebellions of 1809 and 1810-1812, the presidential administration of Rocafuerte (1835-1839), and the García Moreno years (1859-1875). Based on original research in Ecuador, France, and Spain. N.B. Not an altogether satisfactory version; Demélas herself refers to it as a "traducción defectuosa." But in fairness to the translator, the authors's prose is tortuous. Also published in French as: Jerusalem et Babylone: politique et religion en Amérique du Sud, le cas équatorien (Paris: ERC, 1989).

567. Documentos para la historia militar, por la Dirección de Historia y Geografía Militar del Estado Mayor. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1974-1977. 3 v.

A potpourri of primary sources, mostly on military aspects of the colonial and independence periods.

568. Dubly, Alain. Los poblados del Ecuador: estudio geográfico, 1 ed. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1990. 402 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 26)

An examination of the emergence and evolution of human settlements in Ecuador from prehistoric times through the present. N.B. Neither a study of the population nor a population history of the country as misdescribed in some North American library catalogs. A fundamental work, based on many years of field and library research.

569. Ecuador, Andean Mosaic, edited by Rolf Blomberg. Stockhom: Hugo Geber Förlag, 1952. 319 p.

An interesting albeit now considerably dated introduction to the country and its peoples for English language readers.

Contents: Rolf Blomberg, "Foreword"; Aníbal Buitrón, "Ancient Ecuador"; Isaac J. Barrera, "From Theocracy to Democracy"; Francisco Terán, "The Country on Latitude 0"; Francisco Terán, "The Coast"; Aníbal Buitrón, "The Sierra"; Francisco Terán, "The Oriente"; Rolf Blomberg, "The Galápagos Islands"; Jorge Enrique Adoum, "Cultural Facts"; Lillian Robinson, "Ecuador in Foreign Eyes."

570. Ecuador, In the Shadow of the Volcanos, Misael Acosta Solís [et al.]. Quito: Libri Mundi, 1981. 302 p.

A more recent, considerably more detailed, and linguistically more accommodating introduction to Ecuador and Ecuadorians than item 569. Also published in a "new" or [2nd] ed. in 1991. In Italian as: Ecuador all'ombra dei vulcani. Venezia: Erizzo Ed., 1981; and in Spanish as: Ecuador a la sombra de los volcanes. Quito: Libri Mundi, 1981.

Contents: H.N. Hoeck, "Galápagos, the Islands of the Past and Present"; H.N. Hoeck, "Different Types of Volcanoes in Ecuador"; H.N. Hoeck, "Galápagos, a Challenge for the Preservation of Species"; J.G. Marcos, "A Brief Prehistory of Ecuador"; P. Norton, "Excavations on the Sacred island of La Plata"; G. Rossi-Osmida, "Voyages and Explorations in the Ecuador of Atahualpa"; J. Bottasso, "The Price of Survival: the Shuar"; J.A. Yost, "People of the Forest: the Waorani"; G. Ligabue, "Survival and Environments of Ecuador"; M. Acosta Solís, "Ecology and Conservation of Nature in Ecuador"; E. Patzelt, "Flora and Fauna of Ecuador"; G. Rallo, "The Guacharo"; G. Rallo, "The Harpy Eagle"; P. Basaglia, "Classification of Dwellings and Boats of Ecuador"; "Photographic Documentation."

571. Ecuador indígena: aspectos históricos y actuales de la cultura andina, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala; Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleño de Antropología, 1989. 146 p.

The third issue of Ecuador indígena.

Contents: Marcelo Valdospinos Rubio, "Nomenclatura y mestizaje" (p. 13-18); Hernán Jaramillo Cisneros, "El teñido de lana con cochinilla en Salasaca, Tungurahua" (p. 19-31); Carlos Alberto Coba Andrade, "Visión histórica de la música en el Ecuador" (p. 33-62); Segundo E. Moreno Yánez, "Historiografía indígena y tradición de lucha" (p. 63-70); Hernán Jaramillo Cisneros, "La alpargatería: una antigua actividad artesanal en Imbabura" (p. 71-97); Carlos Alberto Coba Andrade, "Comentario a una fiesta que ha muerto: El Coraza" (p. 99-104); Johann Von Kessel, "Los espacios andinos y urbano y su articulación: validez de los conceptos" (p. 105-125); Ceciel Kockelmans, "El fandango en las fiestas privadas de los indígenas de Otavalo, Ecuador" (p. 127-138); Betsy Salazar, "Comunidad de Calpaquí: tecnología utilizada actualmente por la familia rural y/o incorporación de tecnologías apropiadas" (p. 139-146).

572. Ecuador pasado y presente, Leonardo Mejía [et al.]. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1975. 273 p.

A set of essays on the economic history of prehistoric, colonial, and modern Ecuador by a group of at the time young social scientists, written from the perspective of "historical modernism," equivalent in their minds to "la teoría moderna de la historia. Relatively sophisticated. Had a major, continuing impact on national historiography. Also published in a "ed. actualizada" with an added chapter by René Báez on "La químera de la modernización" that continues coverage through the early 1990s: Quito: Libresa, 1995. 227 p.

573. Elizalde, Gorki. Periodización histórica del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1981. 17 p. (i.e., p. 1-17).

A superficial delineation of periods in the history of the country. Lumps the colonial and independence periods together (1534-1822) but recognizes the Gran Colombian years as a separate period (1822-1830), and divides the national period into three (1830-1895, 1895-1922, and 1922-1979) without any explanation whatsoever or specification of the characteristics of said "periods."

Published together with: Víctor A. González S., De la disgregación gentilicia a la esclavitud patriarcal en el Ecuador (item 585).

574. Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Económica y Social del Ecuador (2: 1978: Cuenca, Ecuador). Segundo Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Económica y Social del Ecuador, Cuenca, abril, 1978. Cuenca: IDIS, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1978. 3 v.

Vols. 1-2 consist of 24 papers on various aspects of the history of Ecuador. Vol. 3 is given over to what were then recent and contemporary economic issues and concerns. Noteworthy presentations are listed and annotated separately.

I have been unable to ascertain when the Primer Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Económica y Social del Ecuador was held or whether any of the papers presented at it were published. Some of the papers presented at the Tercer Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Económica y Social del Ecuador, held at the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales in 1980, however, were published as: Ensayos sobre historia regional: la región centro sur (item 6345). Furthermore, some, if not all, of the papers presented at the IV Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Económica y Social del Ecuador, held in 1983, were published as: Carl Marx: en homenaje al centenario de su muerte, 1 ed. (Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1983; 349 p.); and as: Simón Bolívar: en homenaje al bicentenario de su muerte, 1 ed. (Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1983; vii, 350 p.). For those presented at the V Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Económica y Social del Ecuador, organized by the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales and held in 1986, see item 7562. For those presented at the sixth encounter, held in 1989, apparently at which time the Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Económica y Social del Ecuador became the Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Económica y Social del Ecuador y América Latina, see items 2572 and 2573. Since then a seventh and eight encounter were held, also in Cuenca and also sponsored, if not organized, by the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, in 1993 and 1996, respectively.

575. Enock, C. Reginald. Ecuador, Its Ancient and Modern History, Topography and Natural Resources, Industries and Social Development. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1914. 375 p.

The first attempt to write a history of and a comprehensive introduction to Ecuador in English. Still useful as a statement of what the country was like in the early 1900s by an unjaundiced and for the time, well informed observer. Eventually published in Spanish as: Ecuador, su historia, antigua y moderna, su topografía y recursos naturales, sus industrias y su desarrollo social (Quito: El Comercio, 1947; 354 p.); and as Ecuador, geografía humana: su historia antigua y moderna, topografía, recursos naturales, industrias y desarrollo social, según la traducción de Cesar O. Bahamonde T.; introducción, Enrique Ayala Mora (Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1981; 427 p.).

576. Espinosa Pólit, Aurelio. Escritos selectos, selección y prólogo por Luis Andrade Reimers. Quito: Grupo Aymesa: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1994. 499 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 9)

A potpourri of Espinosa Pólit's multifaceted writings. Includes essays on the Catholic Church, the Jesuits, Santa Mariana de Jesús, Olmedo, and the national hymn.

577. Estrella, Eduardo. El pan de América: etnohistoria de los alimentos aborígenes en el Ecuador. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Centro de Estudios Históricos, 1986. xvii, 390 p.

A detailed study of the autochthonous flora and fauna utilized by the indigenous peoples of Ecuador as foodstuffs from prehispanic times through the recent present. Although not the only study of its kind, it was and perhaps still is the most comprehensive. Reprinted by Abya-Yala in 1988 and 1990.

578. Gallardo Moscoso, Hernán. 1.000 años de cultura aborigen: antropogénesis del Ecuador, etnofolklorismo, ciencia ficción. Loja: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," Núcleo de Loja, 1983-1985. 2 v.

579. Gallegos Naranjo, Manuel. Manuel de efemérides: lecciones de historia del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Tip. "El Vigilante," 1900. 168 p.

It is not clear whether this was a primary or a secondary level textbook. It is important today for two reasons: 1) for the curious tidbits of data, some amusing and erroneous such as the rebuffed June 6, 1624 invasion of Guayaquil by "doscientos galeones holandeses, al mando del pirata Jacobo L'Hermite" or the smallpox epidemic of 1785 that was responsible for the death of "más de 25,000 [personas]" in the city of Quito alone, and others quite interesting and informative such as the event of 4 March 1852, "Se reunió por primera vez la Junta protectora de la libertad de esclavos [en Guayaquil], y quedaron manumitidos veintiocho individuos." Or the event of 21 April 1857, "Se comenzó la construcción del Muelle principal de Guayaquil." 2) Because the data, false as well as factional, and interpretations contained in this primer shaped at least one, if not more, generations of Ecuadorians, including scholars. In this regard, it will be recalled that several major intellectuals, such as Isaac J. Barrera (1884-1970), of the first two thirds of the twentieth century had no more than a high school (colegio) education.

580. García Ortiz, Humberto. Las rutas del futuro: una interpretación sociológica del hecho histórico ecuatoriano. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1956. 239 p.

Notwithstanding its promising subtitle, this is not a social history of the country. Instead it is a superficial interpretation of the past and "ongoing present," based far less on knowledge of the land and the peoples of Ecuador than on application of the sociological models in vogue in the 1950s to national "realities." Also on the then widespread but in retrospect surrealistic belief that cultural as well as biological mestizaje would eventually resolve the problems of the country. Does not even contain a detailed or insightful paradigm of the class structure. Important, nonetheless, a source for the study of the history of ideas and mentalities in Ecuador.

581. Geografía básica del Ecuador. Quito: CEDIG, Centro Ecuatoriano de Investigación Geográfica, 1983-<1991>. <5> v.

This work may be treated and should be thought of as a whole--even though it is multi-authored as well as multi-thematic--inasmuch it was conceived of as an integral set, not as a series, and because for the most part it succeeds as an integral set. For its component parts as of July 1997, see: t. 1, El Manejo del espacio (item 565); t. 2, vol. 1, Transición demográfica (item 8719); t. 2, vol. 2, Geografía de la salud (item 8520), t. 3, El Espacio urbano (item 6605); and t. 5, vol. 1, Transformaciones agrarias (item 7877). An exceptionally comprehensive and sophisticated geography.

582. Gómez E., Nelson. "Organización del espacio ecuatoriano," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 12, p. 9-36.

A less than satisfactory essay. Not even an acceptable synthesis of the contemporary state of knowledge.

583. Goncharova, Valerian M. Ecuador: tierra y hombres. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, 1979. 144 p.

A set of essays by a Marxist-Leninism on indigenous movements, Eloy Alfaro, Enrique Gil Gilbert, and related developments and personages of interest to the Communist world. I could forgive Goncharova his ideological bias if he at least got his facts right but this could not have happened, given his dependence on such fellow travelers as Oswaldo Albornoz and fictionalizers like Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco.

584. González, Luis Aurelio. Ideario y remembranzas. Quito: Impr. "Luz de América," 1961. 261 p.

585. González S., Víctor A. De la disgregación gentilicia a la esclavitud patriarcal en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana: Núcleo del Guayas, 1981. 107 p. (i.e., p. 19-128).

Should have been listed under "Período prehispánico" inasmuch as it is an attempt to reconstruct the economic, political, and social structures of the ethnic groups of the central coast during the "Integration" period. An significant essay that contain some important insights. Maintains that the "League of Merchants" was on the point of becoming a nation state. See also items 891 and 892.

Published together with Gorki Elizalde, Periodización histórica del Ecuador (item 573).

586. González S., Víctor A. Las tierras comunales en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, 1982. 109 p.

587. González Suárez, Federico. Ultima miscelánea del Excmo. Sr. D. Federico González Suárez, arzobispo de Quito, recogida y publicada por el Excmo. Sr. D. Manuel María Pólit. Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1932. 559 p.

Consists of miscellaneous letters and religious, archaeological, historical, literary, and scientific essays of the archbishop-historian. See also items 5035 and 5036.

588. Guevara, Darío C. "Las mingas en el Ecuador," Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 86:341 (1957), 163-310.

An essay on corvee labor practices, past and mid-twentieth-century. Also published as a monograph: Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1957. 168 p.

589. Harris, Leo J.; Percy Bargholtz; and Rodrigo Páez Terán. Ecuador, historia postal y catálogo de marcas prefilatélicas. New York: Collectors Club, Inc., 1984. 98 p.

590. Historia del Ecuador. Quito: Salvat Editores Ecuatoriana, 1980-1982. 8 v.

A multi-authored history of Ecuador from prehistoric times through the recent present. More traditional than innovative in approach as the majority of the authors were/are members of the old guard. Worthwhile but difficult to obtain inasmuch as it was issued in fascicles. Profusely illustrated.

591. La Historia del Ecuador: ensayos de interpretación, editor, Enrique Ayala M. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1985. 403 p.

An anthology of grand sweep, highly interpretative essays by leading members of the new and old guard.

592. Historiadores y críticos literarios. Puebla: Edit. J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1959. 548 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mínima; [19])

Consists of selections from the writings of Pablo Herrera, Pedro Moncayo, Juan León Mera, Abelardo Moncayo, Víctor León Vivar Correa, Manuel J. Calle, Julio E. Moreno, Nicolás Jiménez, Alejandro Andrade Coello, Manuel María Pólit Laso, Camilo Destruge, José Gabriel Pino Roca, Modesto Chávez Franco, and Pedro José Huerta.

593. Huerta Rendón, Francisco. Historia del Ecuador. Barcelona: Cartongraf, 1966. 312 p.

One of the better surveys. Especially strong on the prehispanic period, the author's forte.

594. Idrobo Urigüen, Tarquino Aníbal. Ecuador inmortal: lecturas para las nuevas generaciones. Quito: Tall. Gráf. Nacionales, 1950. 239 p.

A set of essays on the history and "great men" of the country.

595. Investigación histórica de la minería en el Ecuador, [realizada por] Maximina Navarro Cárdenas, 2 ed. Quito: Dirección de Industrias del Ejército, 1990. 527 p.

Consists of chronologically ordered extracts from primary and secondary sources on mining in Ecuador. Most of the materials date from the colonial period and had not been published previously.

596. Jaramillo Alvarado, Pío. Estudios históricos, 2 ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1960. 499 p.

Contents: "La revolución del 10 de agosto de 1809: apuntamientos para su estudio"; "La dictadura de Bolívar"; "Caudillos y dictadores"; "En defensa de Rocafuerte"; "Montalvo político"; "El general Eloy Alfaro"; "La victimación [sic] del Gral. Alfaro y sus tenientes"; "Don Abelardo Moncayo y su época"; "Resumen histórico del régimen constitucional ecuatoriano"; "Ubicación histórica del descubrimiento y conquista del Marañón y Amazonas"; "Los tratados con Colombia"; "Síntesis histórica y jurídica de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana y de su defensa territorial."

597. Jaramillo Alvarado, Pío. La nación quiteña: perfil biográfico de una cultura. Quito: Edit. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1958. 566 p.

Contents: "La nación quiteña"; "Reflexiones sobre el Reino de Quito y sus Shyris"; "Atahualpa, creador de la nacionalidad quiteña"; "Algo más sobre la nacionalidad de Atahualpa"; "El secreto de Guayaquil en la entrevista de Bolívar y San Martín"; "El gran mariscal José de La Mar: su posición histórica"; "La gobernación de Quito y el descubrimiento del Amazonas."

598. Jordán M., Aniceto. Revoluciones criollas. Quito: Ediciones Antorcha, 1938. 146 p.

A Marxist interpretation of rebellions and "revolutions" in Ecuador. See also item 604.

599. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Notas de prehistoria e historia ecuatoriana. Quito: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1971. 370 p.

An anthology of previously published essays on the prehispanic period and on archaeologists, historians, and other students of Ecuador.

600. Lowry, Walker. Tumult at Dusk: Being an Account of Ecuador, Its Indians, Its Conquerors, Its Colonists, Its Rebels, Its Dictators, Its Politicians, Its Landowners, Its Artists and Its Priests with a Prologue and an Epilogue. San Francisco: Grabhorn Press, 1963. 159 p.

According to Norris (223:3533), "Tumult of Dusk" sic recounts "los viajes del autor por el Ecuador en busca de caucho durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial [con] algunas observaciones sobre la sociedad, la política y la cultura." Although Norris is partly right, Lowry's Tumult at Dusk is much more than a travel account; it is also a general history of Ecuador. Unfortunately it was issued in only 100 copies.

601. Luna Tamayo, Milton. "Estado, regionalización y lucha política del Ecuador, 1800-1869," Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay, 7 (1987), 105-127.

A thoughtful essay on regionalism, incipient nationalism, and civil strife during the late colonial, independence, and early national periods. Also published in: Quitumbe, 6 (1987), 45-55; and in: Memorias del V Congreso Nacional de Historia y Geografía del Ecuador (item 559), p. 323-345.

602. Martínez Amador, Joaquín. Ecuador, raíces y esperanzas, 1 ed. Guayaquil: Senefelder, 1995. 310 p.

603. Memorias del primer Simposio Europeo sobre Antropología del Ecuador, compilador, Segundo E. Moreno Yánez. Bonn: Instituto de Antropología Cultural, Universidad de Bonn; Quito: Abya-Yala, 1985. 452 p.

An important compendium of original essays on the anthropology, ethnohistory, and history of Ecuador. Reissued as: Antropología del Ecuador, 3 ed. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1989. 505 p.

604. Miño, Ernesto. El Ecuador ante las revoluciones proletarias. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, 1981. 167 p.

A reprint; originally published as: El Ecuador frente a las revoluciones proletarias. Ambato: Colegio Bolívar, 1935. A Marxist interpretation of the social history of Ecuador. See also item 598.

605. Monge, Celiano. Lauros. Ambato: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Tungurahua, 1977. iv, 189 p.

606. Monge, Celiano. Relieves: (artículos históricos). Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana [para la] Academia Ecuatoriana, 1936. 398 p.

Items 605 and 606 are anthologies of Monge's writing on events and persons of the colonial, independence, and early national periods.

607. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E.; and Udo Oberem. Contribución a la etnohistoria ecuatoriana. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleño de Antropología, 1981. 406 p. (Colección Pendoneros; 20, 21)

Moreno's contributions include "La etnohistoria, anotaciones sobre su concepto y un examen de los aportes en el Ecuador," written especially for this volume, and the previously unpublished "Colonias mitmas en el Quito incaico: su significación económica y política." Oberem's contributions include "Los Caranquis de la sierra norte del Ecuador y su incorporación al Tahuantinsuyu," published here for the first time (see also item 1327), and "'Indios libres' e 'indios sujetos a haciendas' en la sierra ecuatoriana a fines de la colonia," not previously available in Spanish. Reprinted: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Instituto Otavaleño de Antropología; Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1995. 2 v.

608. Mörner, Magnus. The Andean Past: Land, Societies, and Conflicts. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985. xiv, 300 p.

A general history of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia from prehispanic times through the early 1980s. Emphasizes demographic, economic, and social developments. Readable and insightful. Insofar as the twentieth century is concerned, supplements Pike's more ideological and political in coverage The United States and the Andean Republics (item 1965). Chapters eight and nine have been published in Spanish as: "La evolución del mercado mundial y su relación con el cambio de la economía andina (1890-1950): estudio comparativo de Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 3:5 (1989), 13-78.

609. Muñoz Vernaza, Alberto. Orígenes de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana y otros ensayos, estudio introductorio, Juan Corderno Iñíquez. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1988. 274 p.

Contents: "Orígenes de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana, 1 parte"; "Memorias de la revolución de Quito"; "Obras de Espejo"; "Fray Vicente Solano."

610. Muñoz Vicuña, Elías. El Ecuador, un país clásico. Guayaquil: Edit. U.G., 1988. 358 p.

A general history.

611. Navas Jímenez, Mario Oswaldo. Historia del Ecuador. Quito: M.O. Navas Jímenez, 1990. 212 p.

612. El Negro en la historia: aportes para el conocimiento de las raíces en América Latina: conferencias del Segundo Congreso [y] XI Jornadas de Historia Social y Genealogía, Esmeraldas, 7-9 septiembre 1990, coordinador, Rafael Savoia, 1 ed. Quito: Centro Cultural Afro-Ecuatoriano, Departamento de Pastoral Afro-Ecuatoriano, 1990. 230 p. (Colección CCA; vol. 2) (Colección Sociedad Amigos de la Genealogía; no. 57)

Partial contents: Fernando Jurado Noboa, "Medardo Angel Silva: cúspide paradógica de la poesía afroecuatoriana" (p. 11-47); Rosaura García A., "La población negra de Quito a fines de la colonia" (p. 49-56); Piedad y Alfredo Costales "Completando la historia nacional: Ambrosio Mondongo, rebelde del Chota" (p. 57-64); Alfonso Castro Chiriboga, "La población negra en el Quito de 1840" (p. 75-83); Fernando Jurado Noboa, "Algunos cabos sueltos sobre esclavitud y negros en la Provincia de Bolívar: 1758-1910" (p. 85-88); Marcia Stacey de Valdivieso, "Negros en Chaupicruz: 1648-1980"; Leopoldo Jibaja Rubio, "Eslavitud en la sierra: 1738-1816"; Jorge Villalba, "Una república de trabajadores negros en las minas de Zaruma en el siglo XVI" (p. 121-125); Fernando Jurado Noboa, "Demografía y trascendencia del grupo africano en el Guayaquil de 1738" (p. 143-145); José Mayorga Barona, "Los Tobar del Tolima en Esmeraldas: el aporte africano de los Jaén en la clase alta local" (p. 147-165); Ezio Garay Arellano, "Dispensas matrimoniales de negros, indios y blancos en la Provincia de Los Ríos" (p. 167-192); Manuel Loor Villaquirán, "Alonso de Illescas, estratega militar y político" (p. 193-198); Rafael Savoia, "Historia social de Uimbí" (p. 199-230).

613. El Negro en la historia: raíces africanas en la nacionalidad ecuatoriana: conferencias del Tercer Congreso [y] XVI Jornadas de Historia Social y Genealogía, Esmeraldas, 20-22 noviembre 1992, coordinador, Rafael Savoia, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Afroamérica, Centro Cultural Afro-Ecuatoriano, 1992. 239 p. (Colección CCA; vol. 3) (Colección Medio milenio; vol. 9)

Contents: Rafael Savoia, "Esmeraldas a mediados del siglo XVIII" (p. 11-30); Fernando Jurado Noboa, "Esmeraldas en los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII: sus tres afluentes negros coloniales" (p. 31-39); Ricardo Ordoñez and Mauricio Alvarado, "Análisis del censo de Río Verde, Atacames y Súa" (p. 41-42); Ezio Garay Arellano, "Vecinos y familias de Río Verde en época garciana" (p. 43-55); José Mayorga, "Esmeraldas y su población de 1871" (p. 57-74); José Arteaga P., "Alfaro y los negros" (p. 75-79); Nelson Estupiñán Bass, "Memorias de una ciudad: 1920-1930" (p. 81-91); Julio Estupiñán Tello, "Esmeraldas de ayer" (p. 93-98); Gustavo A. Rivadeneira, "Biología y genealogía de un esmeraldeño de ascendencia inglesa" (p. 99-127); Luis Argentina Chiriboga, "Raíces africanas en la nacionalidad ecuatoriana" (p. 129-139); Rafael Savoia, "Genealogía e historia social del Valle del Chota y Cuenca del Río Mira" (p. 141-144); Fernando Jurado Noboa, "Una visión global sobre el Chota: 1475-1813" (p. 145-154); Salomón Chalá, "Cómo vivimos en el Valle del Chota?" (p. 155-165); Rosaura García de Pólit, "El mundo negro de Cuajara al tiempo de la expulsión jesuíta" (p. 167-169); Rosaura García de Pólit, "El sistema esclavista en la época del General Flores: 1840" (p. 171-181); Ezio Garay Arellano, "Dieciséis años de historia documentada de las compra-ventas, cartas de horro y libertad de los negros de Guayaquil en el siglo XVII" (p. 183-202); Rafael Savoia, "La presencia del hombre negro en Zaruma" (p. 205-210).

614. Nicolá López, Gerardo. El Ecuador en cuatro siglos. Ambato: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo de Tungurahua, 1963. 58 p.

615. Nueva historia del Ecuador, Enrique Ayalá Mora, editor. Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional; Grijalbo, 1983-1994. 15 v.

A multi-authored, new approach history of Ecuador from pre-Inca times through 1990. Vols. 1-2 cover the prehispanic period; vols. 3-5, the colonial period; vol. 6, the independence and Gran Colombian period; and vols. 7-11, the national period. Vols. 12-13 consist of "grand sweep" essays. Vol. 14 consists of a "comparative chronology" or time lines of events in Europe, the Americas, and Ecuador itself, and vol. 15 of "documentos" or sources. Almost all of the vols. include more or less useful bibliographies, but they are incomplete: the bibliographies do not list all of the works cited or referred to by the individual contributors. Furthermore, many of the citations suffers from errors of commission and omission. Also this work is inadequately indexed; the name and place indexes for vols. 1-13 (at the end of vol. 13) are incomplete. Nonetheless, the majority of the essays are cogent, insightful syntheses of "traditional" and "new" studies on all periods, but not all aspects in every case, of the past of the country at large and of its component regions, cities and towns. Moreover, almost all of the authors are professionally trained scholars and active researchers. An exceptionally extraordinary benchmark in Ecuadorian historiography.

616. Páez, J. Roberto. Estudios de historia ecuatoriana y otros ensayos, selección y prólogo por Enrique Villasís Terán. Quito: Grupo Aymesa: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1995. 592 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 12)

A welcome compendium of Páez's numerous, heretofore scattered essays on multiple aspects of the history of Ecuador, especially major figures, chroniclers, sources, and the colonial and independence periods.

617. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Breve historia del Ecuador. Caracas: Academia Nacional de la Historia, 1992. 386 p.

618. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Historia del Ecuador, 2 ed. rev. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1958. 2 v.

Both items 617 and 618, are idiosyncratic and fictionalized accounts. Both are available in several editions or versions with variant titles.

619. Peñaherrera, Guillermo. Opúsculos para la historia. Quito: Edit. Rumiñahui, 1958. 3 v.

620. Peñaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Historia social del Ecuador. Quito: Instituto Ecuatoriano de Antropología y Geografía, 1964-1971. 4 v.

Vols. 1-3 appeared as Nos. 17-19 of Llacta. Vol. 4: Quito: Edit. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. Although factually inaccurate in places--the Costales were careless in their acceptance of data, especially quantitative data--and methodologically unsophisticated, this work is notable because it constituted not just one of the earliest attempts to write a social history of Ecuador from the Spanish conquest through the 1960s but more importantly to incorporate Indians and blacks, mestizos and zambos into the mainstream of national historiography. The section on the abolition of slavery is especially important (vol. 1, pp. 288-369).

Contents: vol. 1, El concertaje de indios y manumisión de esclavos (1964); vol. 2, Aspectos socio-económicos de la estructura agraria ecuatoriana (1964); vol. 3, Recopilación de leyes sociales indígenas de 1830 á 1918 (1964); vol. 4, Reforma agraria.

621. Peñaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Los Isaminas. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala; Centro de Investigaciones para la Educación Popular, [1986?]. 317 p.

A popular history of Ecuador. Emphasizes Indian wars, including resistance to the Inca conquest, and uprisings.

622. Peñaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Los Llactaios. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala: Centro de Investigaciones para la Educación Popular, [1985]. 238 p.

A history of Indian resistance and uprisings in Ecuador from the Spanish conquest through the 1871 "rebellion" of Daquilema.

623. Peñaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Llacta runa. Quito: Instituto Ecuatoriano de Antropología y Geografía, 1961. 244 p. (Llacta; no. 12)

Delineates the ethnogeography of the indigenous peoples of Ecuador on the eve of contact and circa 1960.

624. Peñaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Nos, la plebe. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1986. 204 p.

A documented but methodologically unsophisticated study of the role of urban crowds in riots and rebellions during the late colonial and independence periods, especially in Quito, Cuenca, and Riobamba.

625. Pérez Concha, Jorge. Escritos históricos: páginas de historia ecuatoriana, 1 ed. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, 1990. 150 p.

A potpourri of the author's historical essays.

626. Pérez Guerrero, Alfredo. Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1948. 183 p.

627. Pérez Guerrero, Alfredo. Semillas al viento, 1 ed. Quito: Publitécnica, 1966. xii, 229 p.

628. Pérez Pimentel, Rodolfo. El Ecuador profundo: mitos, historias, leyendas, recuerdos, anécdotas y tradiciones del país. Guayaquil: Edit. de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1988-1990. 4 v.

A la Ricardo Palma.

629. Pino Roca, José Gabriel. Fundamentos de la historia del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Impr. del Progreso, 1909. 101 p.

A primer. Important as an example of early twentieth-century thought regarding the formation and history of the country. The author, a guayaquileño, was a leading intellectual of the time.

630. Ponce Ribadneira, Alfredo. Once ensayos. Quito: Edit. "Fray Jodoco Ricke," 1963. 222 p.

Partial contents: "El descubrimiento del Amazonas"; "Reflexiones sobre las gestas libertarias de Quito"; "El general Salazar"; "Don Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño."

631. Portal Valenzuela, Bélfor. Ecuador. Madrid: Anaya, 1988. 127 p.

A superficial introduction to the land, people, and history of the country.

632. Poveda, Carlos Samuel. Ensayos y opiniones: colección de artículos literarios, de historia y administración pública. Quito: Impr. "Ecuador," 1938. 72 p.

633. Quevedo, Belisario. Historia del Ecuador: compendio de historia patria. Quito: Edit. Bolívar, 1931. 246 p.

Edited by Alfonso and José Rumazo González. Originally published in successive instalments in 1919 in the Revista de la Sociedad Jurídico-Literaria. Reprinted with an introductory study "Pensamiento y patria en Belisario Quevedo" by Samuel Guerra Bravo (p. 7-24). Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1982. 315 p.

634. Quevedo, Belisario. Texto de historia patria. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1959. 153 p.

Items 633 and 634 are panoramic treatments from the point of view of a staunch Liberal. Widely used as textbooks in their day, they influenced several generation of Ecuadorians.

635. Ramón Valarezo, Galo. "El Ecuador en el espacio andino: idea, proceso y utopía," Allpanchis (Cuzco), 35/36 (1990), 517-578.

636. Reyes, Oscar Efrén. Breve historia general del Ecuador, 6a ed., ampliada de acuerdo con los últimos estudios históricos. Quito: Tall. Gráf. del Instituto Nacional Mejía, 1960. 3 v. in 2.

T. 2-3: Edit. "Fray Jodoco Ricke." Despite the edition statement, a reprint of the 4a ed. with coverage through 1949 only. Continuously but not consecutively paged. Originally published in 1938. The classic secondary level text. For many years also used at the university level, given the lack of a more appropriate work. See also item 1970.

637. Ribadeneira Araujo, Jorge. Tiempos idos ..., 1 ed. Quito: [s.n.], 1988. 205 p.

638. Rivera Villavicencio, Oswaldo. Vibraciones del tiempo. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1973. 288 p.

639. Rolando, Carlos A. "Cronología histórica ecuatoriana," Cuadernos de historia y arqueología, 1:1 (ene. 1951), 29-42; 2:4/5 (ago. 1952), 79-100.

Covers the months of Jan. through Aug only.

640. Salvador Lara, Jorge. "Apuntes para la historia de la población indígena del Ecuador," América indígena, 34:3 (jul./set. 1974), 685-712.

Consists of notes for a history of "Indians" and indigenismo in Ecuador.

641. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Breve historia contempóranea del Ecuador. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1994. 638 p.

A general history from approximately 30,000 B.C.E. through 1992. More or less traditional in approach. Well written. Includes a brief bibliographic essay and an onomastic index.

642. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Escorzos de historia patria. Quito: Ediciones Quitumbe, 1977. 357 p.

An anthology of previously published essays on the "prehistory," "protohistory" and history of the country.

643. Salvador Lara, Jorge. "Introducción al estudio de la historia general del Ecuador," Museo Histórico, 15:43/44 (ago. 1963), 40-60.

644. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Testimonio. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1972. 486 p.

A group of miscellaneous essays, some historical, some "contemporary" on the Catholic Church, significant events of the day, and major personages.

645. Segarra Iñiguez, Guillermo. Historia del Ecuador. Quito: Ediciones OFIMEX, 1986-. <1 v. {268 p.}> .

Contents: t. 1, El medio natural, prehistoria.

646. Silva, Erika. Los mitos de la ecuatorianidad. Quito: Ediciones Abya Yala, 1992. 85 p.

A critical assessment of past and present relations between the several ethnic groups that comprise the Ecuadorian "nation."

647. Stornaiolo, Ugo. Anatomía de un país latinoamericano: El Ecuador, 1 ed. Quito: BSM, Ediciones Culturales, 1988. 300 p.

648. Tobar Donoso, Julio. Estudios sobre historia ecuatoriana, selección de textos Jorge Salvador Lara; estudios introductorios por Jorge Salvador Lara [et al.]. Quito: Grupo Aymesa: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1994. 551 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 10)

A representative selection of the author's numerous contributions to multiple aspects of the history of Ecuador.

Partial Contents: "La organización jurídico territorial de las colonias españolas"; "Aspectos jurídicos de la erección de la Audiencia de Quito"; "Santa Mariana de Jesús"; "Los historiadores y cronistas de Indias"; "El restablecimiento de la Audiencia de Quito"; "Un nuevo mapa de misiones ecuatorianas"; "La obra capital de P. Juan de Velasco, S.J."; "La transformación de 1809 fue eminentemente jurídica"; "Origenes constitucionales de la República del Ecuador"; "Iglesia y Estado en las primeras constituciones de la Gran Colombia"; "Vinculaciones entre los estadistas granadinos y ecuatorianos en los primeros años de la república"; "Las leyes sociales de la Gran Colombia."

649. Trabucco, Federico E. Síntesis histórica de la República del Ecuador. Quito: Edit. "Santo Domingo," 1968. xvi, 1117 p.

An exceptionally useful vade mecum, especially of dates and events.

650. Uzcátegui, Emilio. Hechos y hombres de nuestra cultura. Quito: Edit. ENA, 1984. 153 p.

651. Uzcátegui, Maruja de. Apuntes para una historia de la protección y de los servicios sociales en el Ecuador. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad, 1952. 38 p.

A survey of social services from the foundation of the hospital of Quito in 1565 through the early 1950s.

652. Vaquero Dávila, Jesús. Aspectos sociológicos de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana. Quito: Manuel Piedra N., 1930. xv, 265 p.

653. Vaquero Dávila, Jesús. Génesis de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad, 1941. 417 p.

An insightful survey of the history of the country from prehispanic times through the first third of the twentieth century.

654. Villacrés Moscoso, Jorge W. "Geohistoria del Estado ecuatoriano," Cuadernos de historia y arqueología, 23:40 (1973), 29-161.

655. Villasís Terán, Enrique M. Elogio del Ecuador, 2 ed., rev. Quito: Gráficas Iberia, 1992. 493 p.

A general introduction to past and present Ecuador. Emphasizes regional and local history.

656. Viteri Lafronte, Homero. El precursor Espejo y otros estudios sobre historia, selección y prólogo por Jorge Salvador Lara. Quito: Grupo Aymesa: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1993. 470 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 8)

Contents: "El centenario de la República del Ecuador"; "Gonzalo Díaz de Pineda"; "Un libro autografo de Espejo"; "El impreso de Espejo en Bogotá"; "Bolívar"; "La agresión de 1941"; "El Ecuador y su salida al Marañón"; "El Ecuador y su propia salida al Marañón."

657. Von Hagen, Victor Wolfgang. Ecuador and the Galápagos Islands. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1949. ix, 290 p.

A popular introduction to past and mid-twentieth-century Ecuador. Marred by careless mistakes. Von Hagen appears to have been more concerned to tell a good tale than to get facts and figures right.

658. Weilbauer, Arthur. Los alemanes en el Ecuador: estudio histórico = Die Deutschen in Ekuador: historische Studie. Quito: Colegio Alemán, 1975. 117 p.

In Spanish and German. Reviews German activities in and writings on Ecuador. N.B. It cannot be overemphasized that the German contribution to Ecuadorian studies has been monumental, beginning with the works of Humboldt.