La colonia

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA

DEL ECUADOR

Vol. I

por

MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

LA COLONIA

Notwithstanding the considerable number of works on the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and/or early nineteenth centuries, as of the late 1990s, the colonial period had not nearly as well worked as it could have been, especially insofar as chronologically and thematically comprehensive studies are concerned. The most detailed account continued to be that of Federico González Suárez (item 1388). There had been some notable advances, nonetheless, a good example of which is the Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615). Furthermore, the most thematically comprehensive as well as "up-to-date" in approach introduction to the colonial period was that to be found by various scholars in vols 3-6 of the Nueva historia del Ecuador, for the specific contributions to which items 1347, 1351, 1352, 1357, 1401, 1410, 1430, 1433, 1435, 1447, 1478, and 1513.

In addition to the didactic accounts referred to in the introductory remarks to "Historia: Obras generales y misceláneas," see also Aquiles R. Pérez T.'s Historia de la República del Ecuador (item 1468), an essay on the colonial period--regardless of its title--largely based on original research, mostly in the Archivo Nacional de Historia (Quito).

Insofar as the sixteenth century is concerned, only José María Vargas had produced a "new" overview (item 1529). The same held true for the seventeenth century (item 1530). Although useful, Vargas's two quasi-chronicles left much to be desired. The late Father Vargas relied on the not altogether satisfactory transcriptions of Archivo General de Indias materials in the Vacas Galindo Collection and was methodologically weak, having been an autodidact. Vargas had a very strong interest in cultural and economic developments, however, and gave us a number of notable works along those lines, especially his Historia de la cultura ecuatoriana (item 3758)--the latter of which also takes in the national period--and La economia política del Ecuador durante la colonia (item 1528).

The eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries, however, had been exceptionally well treated by Kenneth J. Andrien in The Kingdom of Quito, 1690-1830 (item 1343). See also: Rosemarie Terán Najas's promising Los proyectos del imperio borbónico en la Real Audiencia de Quito (item 1510); and Douglas A. Washburn's somewhat disappointing doctoral dissertation, The Bourbon Reforms (item 1542).

Notwithstanding the numerous, mostly important by any standard, contributions made in ethnohistory during the final third of the twentieth century, a comprehensive history of Andean ethnic groups from the Spanish conquest through the eve of independence remained to be produced. The same could be said for the social history of the colonial period, but in the interim, Hugo Arias Palacios's Evolución socioeconómica del Ecuador: sociedades primitivas y período colonial (item 687) helped fill in some of the gaps. The economic history of the period was in appreciably better shape. In addition to Vargas's Historia económica, Arias Palacios's Evolución socioeconómica, and Andrien's The Kingdom of Quito, see: Robson Brines Tyrer's pioneering Historia demográfica y económica (item 5427); Nicholas P. Cushner's Farm and Factory (item 1370); and Manuel Miño Grijalva's La protoindustria colonial hispanoamericana and La manufactura colonial: la constitución técnica del obraje (items 1435 and 1436). The population history of the period had also begun to become known in some detail as well as in outline (in addition to the works listed below, see those in the "Demografía histórica" section, almost all of which examine developments of one or more of the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and early-nineteenth centuries).

Some readers will note the apparent absence of a number of other pre-1996 studies of importance on the colonial period in this section. But that is because they are to be found in elsewhere in this bibliography (for example, in the "Historia regional" and "Historia urbana" sections).

The past of Ecuador continued to be intertwined with those of neighboring Peru and Colombia during the colonial period. Many of the documentary sets published on the Viceroyalties of Peru and Nueva Granada, to both of which the Audiencia/Presidency of Quito was subordinated at one time or another, contain not just data but entire documents relating to the future Ecuador.

In addition to the guides to the chronicles and other "Peruvian" materials mentioned in the introductory remarks to the "La conquista española y las guerras civiles" subsection, see Raúl Porras Barrenechea's Fuentes históricas peruanas (Lima: Instituto Raúl Porras Barrenechea, Escuela de Altos Estudios y de Investigaciones Peruvianistas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 1963). Bibliographies and guides to historical materials of Colombia were and may still be less complete, but Mario Germán Romero, Guillermo Hernández de Alba, and Sergio Elías Ortiz, Papeles bibliográficas para el estudio de la historia de Colombia (Bogotá: Banco de la República; Biblioteca Luis-Angel Arango, 1961) is helpful as is also the ongoing "History: Spanish South America: Colonial Period" section of the Handbook of Latin American studies.

Few Ecuadorian historians and Ecuadorianists appear to be aware of the substantial number and variety of relevant imprints of the colonial period. Admittedly it is no easy matter to locate colonial period imprints, but as primary sources they are just as indispensable as manuscripts of the era. I too was unaware of just how many published informes, memorias, and other materials of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth century exist in addition to the long since known chronicles and travel accounts before coming to the John Carter Brown Library in 1998--too late to incorporate said imprints in this bibliography. I am referring of course to materials printed during the colonial period, not to subsequently published materials of the colonial period.

Although Ecuador did not have a printing press of its own until 1755, a number of Spaniards, "Ecuadorians," and other colonials published many materials of importance on or relating to the colony in Madrid, elsewhere in Spain, and in Lima. For substantial albeit incomplete guides to said items, see José Toribio Medina's Biblioteca hispano-americana, 1493-1810 (Santiago de Chile: J.T. Medina, 1898-1907; 7 v.; reprint: Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1966); Medina's La imprenta en Lima (Santiago de Chile: J.T. Medina, 1904-1907; 4 v.); and Rubén Vargas Ugarte's Impresos peruanos (Lima, 1935-1957; 7 v.; vols. 6-12 of his "Biblioteca peruana," 6-12)--cited in a variety of bewildering ways by bibliographers, cataloguers, and scholars. Unfortunately the author indexes to these bibliographies are incomplete and subject indexes nonexistent.

Some examples of what I mean are:

1) Memorial, que el licenciado don Matias Lagunez, del consejo de su Magestad, y oydor de la Real Audiencia de San Francisco de Quito, haziendo oficio de fiscal en ella, diò, y presentò en dicha Real Audiencia, à cerca del beneficio, y cobrança de los tributos de los indios. Y de los medios que se pueden poner, para que se eviten los fraudes, que en dicha cobrança se cometen, en daño, y perjuicio de la Real Hazienda (Madrid, 1686; 12 leaves);

2) Manifiesto veridico, y legal, que en hecho, y derecho evidencia lo que contienen los autos de pesquisa, y la inculpabilidad, que de ellos resulta en todos los cargos, que se le hicieron a D. Joseph de Araujo y Rio, del Consejo de su Magestad, presidente, governador, y capitan general de la Real Audiencia de Quito, por el juez de pesquisa don Manuel Rubio de Arevalo, del consejo de su Magestad, provisto oidor de Santa Fè ([Madrid, 1745]; 168, [2] leaves);

3) Informe, que en virtud de poderes, e instrucciones del Rdo. Obispo de Quito, hace a V. Magestad el Dor. D. Diego de Riofrio y Peralta, cura de la parroquial de Santa Barbara de dicha ciudad, y visitador nombrado en consequencia de reales cedulas de V. Mag. de las Provincias de los Quixos Zucumbios, del gran Rio de las Amazonas, y del Puthumayo, para el reconocimiento de sus misiones, y otros encargos. Expone lo que sobre ellos ha reconocido; el numero, y nombre de los pueblos en missiones establecidos; su actual consistencia en missioneros, vecindarios, y numero de almas convertidas; sus costumbres, y otras noticias utiles (Madrid, 1747; 15 leaves);

4) Compendio historico de la prodigiosa vida, virtudes, y milagros de la venerable sierva de Dios Mariana de Jesus, Flores, y Paredes, conocida con el justo renombre de la Azucena de Quito / escrito por don Thomas de Gijon y Leon, doctor theologo en la Universidad del angelico doctor Santo Thomas, y en sagrados canones en la del señor S. Gregorio, examinador sinodal del obispado de Quito, racionero de su Santa Iglesia Cathedral, y procurador deputado à las curias regia, y pontificia para la beatificacion, y canonizacion de la referida sierva de Dios (Madrid. : En la Imprenta del Mercurio, por Joseph de Orga, impressor., año de 1754; [58], 217, [3] p.); and

5) Carta pastoral, que con occasion de la ruyna de la ciudad de Quito, participada a esta capital, escribe el Illmo. Sor. Dor. D. Pedro Antonio de Barroeta y Angel, arzobispo de los Reyes, a sus amadas ovejas, exhortandolas, à que aplaquen la ira de Dios, que les amenaza; satisfagan con frutos dignos de penitencia la Divina Justicia; y merezcan conseguir su misericordia (Impressa en Lima, en la Plazuela de S. Christoval. Por Juan Joseph Cossio. Año de 1755; 29 leaves).

The first example is described in Medina's Biblioteca hispano-americana and the fifth in Medina's La imprenta en Lima and Vargas Ugarte's Impresos peruanos. The first example is also listed in Norris's Guía bibliográfica. The second example, one of Araujo's defense briefs as it were, does not appear in Medina, Vargas Ugarte, Norris, or Larrea's Bibliografía científica, however. Nor does the third example, Riofrío y Peralta's Informe--a significant historical demographic as well as ecclesiastical historical source. The only known copies of the second and third examples are in the John Carter Brown Library; copies of the other three examples may also be seen in the John Carter Brown Library. The fourth example is, of course, described and discussed in Larrea's Las biografías de Santa Mariana de Jesús (item 248).

1342. Almedia Muñoz, Wilson. Revisión de las "Noticias secretas": su importancia para la historia del Ecuador y de América Latina. Quito: Comisión Nacional Permanente de Conmemoraciones Cívicas: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," 1988. 245 p.

Glosses Juan and Ulloa's Noticias secretas (item 7330) and reexamines the importance of the Geodesic Mission of 1736.

1343. Andrien, Kenneth J. The Kingdom of Quito, 1690-1830: The State and Regional Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. xi, 255 p.

An exceptionally well researched, structured, and articulated study of demographic and economic events and developments in the three major regions (the northern and central highlands, the southern highlands, and the central and southern coast) and in the three primary cities (Quito, Cuenca, and Guayaquil), and of the political economy of the colony per se from the epidemics of the 1690s through the establishment of the nation state in 1830. Draws heavily on royal treasury data, for which see item 1403. The most important economic study of the Presidency of Quito at large since Arias Palacios's Evolución socioeconómica (item 687), Vargas's La economía política (item 1527), and Tyrer's Historia demográfica y económica (item 5427). Although Andrien does not appear to have seen item 687, his The Kingdom of Quito clearly surpasses but does not wholly supplant items 1527 and 5427, insofar as the second half of the colonial period is concerned. Also it undoubtedly will continue to be one of the best studies, if it is no longer still the best, of the implementation of the Bourbon reforms in the Audiencia and of their impact. Previews of this work appeared as: "Corruption, Self-Interest, and the Political Culture of Eighteenth-Century Quito," Virtue, Corruption, and Self-Interest: Political Values in the Eighteenth Century, edited by Richard K. Matthews (Bethlehem, Pa.: Lehigh University Press, 1994), p. 270-296; and as: "The State and Dependency in Late Colonial and Early Republican Ecuador" (item 1344).

1344. Andrien, Kenneth J. "The State and Dependency in Late Colonial and Early Republican Ecuador," The Political Economy of Spanish America in the Age of Revolution, 1750-1850, edited by Kenneth J. Andrien and Lyman L. Johnson (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994), p. 169-195.

Utilizes dependency literature as qualitative framework and treasury records of Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca as quantitative basis to reassess role of the state in economic development of Ecuador during the late colonial, independence, and early national periods. Concludes that the state regardless of period or persona "promoted economic polices that created a discriminatory, arbitrary, and irrational economic environment for promoting sustained, autonomous development."

1345. Arcila Farias, Eduardo. Comercio entre Venezuela y México en los siglos XVII y XVIII. México, D.F.: El Colegio de México, 1960. 324 p.

Includes a running discussion of the running "disputa de Venezuela y Guayaquil por el mercado [de cacao] de la Nueva España".

1346. Argüello, Patricia; and Loreto Rebollero G. "Explotación de oro en la Real Audiencia de Quito durante el siglo XVI," Antropología (Quito), 1 (jun. 1983), 32-49.

A superficial analysis of the exploitation of gold mining during the second half of the sixteenth century. Insofar as primary sources are concerned, relies on the relaciones geográficas published by Jiménez de la Espada (item 1406), whose name Argüello and Rebollero could not even spell correctly, and ignores other published sources such as Las Minas de Zamora: cuentas de la Real Hacienda, 1561-1565 (item 6392).

1347. Arias Palacios, Hugo. "La economía de la Real Audiencia de Quito y la crisis del siglo XVIII," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 187-229.

A somewhat anachronistic account of the "crisis" of the eighteenth century and the "restructuring" of the economies of the highlands and of the coast in response thereto. Arias ignored all of the "newer" literature on what was happening in the mother country and in the Perus, almost all of the "newer studies" on the highlands, and relied excessively on Hamerly's Historia social y económica (item 5975) when it comes to developments in the former Province of Guayaquil.

1348. Ascaray, Juan de "Abogados de la Real Audiencia de Quito," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 8:13 (ago. 1964), 29-45.

Lists lawyers licensed between 1733 and 1829.

1349. Ascaray, Juan de. Serie chronólogica de los señores presidentes que ha tenido la Audiencia y Chancillería Real de Quito, desde su fundación ... Quito: Impr. de Mauricio de los Reyes, 1794. 1 v. (not paginated)

A calendar of the presidents of the audiencia. Ascaray (b. 1743) was the first lay chronicler of the Presidency of Quito.

1350. Autos acordados de la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1578-1722, [transcritos y con una introducción por] Juan Freile Granizo. Guayaquil: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1971. 615 p. (Anuario histórico jurídico ecuatoriano; 2)

Publishes resolutions of the Audiencia. Includes related documents. An important primary source group on multiple, not just institutional, aspects of the colonial period. Indexed.

1351. Benavides Vega, Carlos. "Sinopsis histórica del siglo XVII," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 105-137.

Examines political and cultural developments of the 1600s.

1352. Benítez, Silvia; and Gaby Costa. "La familia, la ciudad y la vida cotidiana en el período colonial," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 5, p. 187-230.

An attempt to examine family, urban, and daily life during the colonial period. Not altogether satisfactory given the then scant literature on the topics in question. Nonetheless, a commendable first effort. See also items 2185 and 2612.

1353. Blanco, José María. "Noticias histórico-económicas de Quito," Museo Histórico, 4:14/15 (1952), 11-30.

An 1825 chronicle by the continuador of Ascaray. Blanco was a priest.

1354. Bonnett Vélez, Diana. El protector de naturales en la Audiencia de Quito: siglos XVII y XVIII, 1 ed. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Ecuador, 1992. 153 p.

A well researched master's thesis on the Protectorate of Indians. Examines the office and analyzes a number of cases relating to land and labor disputes and to tribute impositions. A historiographical first for Ecuador.

1355. Borchart de Moreno, Christiana. "Beyond the Obraje: Handicraft Production in Quito toward the End of the Colonial Period," The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 52:1 (July 1995), 1-24.

A pioneering essay on a largely neglected aspect of the economy of the colonial period, the domestic as well as guild and workshop production of handicrafts other than woolen textiles. Borchart focuses mostly on the northern and central highlands, tackles the late colonial period because of the existence of a record group (the "libros de guías") that sheds light on the subject, and examines a wide variety of cottage craft industries. Nonetheless, she has much more to say on the production of cotton textiles than of other handicrafts, but that is because of limitations in the sources consulted. Also published in Spanish as: "Más allá del obraje: la producción artesanal en Quito hacia finales del período colonial," Memoria, MARKA, 5 (1995), 1-34.

1356. Borchart de Moreno, Christiana. "Capital comercial y producción agrícola: Nueva España y la Audiencia de Quito en el siglo XVIII," Anuario de estudios americanos, 46 (1989), 131-172.

Primarily a study of Carlos Araujo, a major merchant and landowner of Quito in the 1700s, with some discussion of several of his Mexican counterparts.

1357. Borchart de Moreno, Christiana. "Origen y conformación de la hacienda colonial," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 139-166.

A solid introduction to the emergence of landed estates during the early colonial period by a leading authority on the subject (see items 6090, 6091, 6093-6095).

1358. Borja, Luis Felipe (hijo). "La mujer ecuatoriana," Gaceta municipal (Quito), 10:79 (oct./dic. 1934), 243-247.

A brief appreciation of the role of women, especially of exceptional women, during the colonial and independence periods.

1359. Borrero, Manuel María. España en Quito. Quito: Edit. Fray Jodoco Ricke, 1969. 472 p.

An apologetic for the Spanish conquest and colony. Exalts Spaniards, especially peninsulars, as christianizers and civilizers, and blames "Indians," blacks, and the "castes" for Ecuador's past and present problems.

1360. Buchwald, Otto von. "Propiedad rústica en tiempo de la colonia," Revista de la Sociedad Jurídico-Literaria, 23:74/75 (1920), 69-79.

An essay on rural estates, especially haciendas, during the colonial period.

1361. Büschges, Christian. Familie, Ehre, und Macht: Konzept und soziale Wirklichkeit des Adels in der Stadt Quito (Ecuador) während der späten Kolonialzeit, 1765-1822. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1996.

A social and economic history of the nobility in the city of Quito and the northern and central highlands during the late colonial and independence periods. By "nobility" is meant the titled, hidalgos, and those generally reputed to be "noble," especially descendants of conquistadores and primeros vecinos and high ranking members of the local bureaucracy, Church, and militia. Well researched and solidly documented. A major contribution to the history of the much touted but previously poorly studied creole elite, a group whom Büschges rightfully maintains was quite conservative.

1362. Caillavet, Chantal. "Ex-voto coloniaux et pensée andine: une iconographie du syncrétisme religieux," Religions des Andes et langues indigènes: Equateur, Pérou, Bolivie avant et après la conquête espagnole: actes du Colloque III d'études andines, Pierre Duviols coordinateur (Aix-Marseille: Publications de l'Université de Provence, 1993), p. 261-279.

A pioneering essay, insofar as Ecuador is concerned, of the extent to which Andean religious beliefs and practices persisted after the Spanish conquest and Christian proselytization of the indigenous populations and of the ways and means by which lo andino permeated Catholic rituals and iconography, especially the Marian cult and its multiple manifestations, during the colonial period and beyond.

1363. Caldas, Francisco José de. Cartas de Caldas, recopiladas y publicadas por E.P. Bogotá: Impr. Nacional, 1912. xxvii, 596 p. (Biblioteca de historia nacional; vol. IX)

An important compendium of sources. It will be recalled that Caldas was a pensador who was active in the Presidency of Quito as well as in his native New Granada during the early 1800s, and subsequently a prócer of the movements for independence. See also items 7235-7237.

1364. Carondelet, Luis Hector, Barón de. "El Barón de Carondelet y la apertura del camino a Esmeraldas," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 4:6 (ene./dic. 1956), 6-17.

An 1800 proposal by the Barón de Carondelet to reopen the road to Esmeraldas.

1365. Carondelet, Luis Hector, Barón de. "Informe reservado," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 36:88 (jul./dic. 1956), 256-265.

Also regarding the reopening of the road to Esmeraldas.

1366. Carrión, Alejandro. En el reino de los golillas. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1991. 177 p. (Obras completas de Alejandro Carrión; vol. 13)

A set of semi-fictionalized essays on various aspects of and incidents during the colonial period. Yet the author understood and articulated the mentality of his ancestors well.

Contents: "Pedro de Puelles, primer gobernante quiteño"; "Salazar de Villasante, defensor de los indios"; "Los hijos de Benalcázar y el gobierno de los oidores"; "Dos hombres de la revolución de las alcabalas"; "Nacimiento de la poesía quiteña"; "La primera rebelión estudiantil."

1367. Colección de cédulas reales dirigidas a la Audiencia de Quito, versión de Jorge A. Garcés G. Quito: Archivo Municipal, 1935-1946. 2 v. (Publicaciones del Archivo Municipal; 7, 19)

Vol. 1 covers the years 1538-1600, and vol. 2, the years 1601-1660. A major set of primary sources. Royal decrees were frequently issued in response to local and regional issues and problems. Those directed to the Audiencia of Quito were no exception.

1368. Costales Peñaherrera, Jaime A. "Las ordenanzas de obrajes," Boletín de informaciones científicas nacionales, 119 (mayo 1986), 17-62.

Publishes without analysis the 1621 ordenanzas de obrajes of inspector general Matias de Peralta as found in the Archivo Nacional de Historia (Quito). Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse's version and study thereof (item 1466) is preferable. Interestingly enough in his opening remarks Costales Peñaherrera complains of "una edición apócrifa de tales Ordenanzas, en años recientes" one that, however, he was unable to confirm. It is not surprisingly therefore that Costales Peñaherrera, whose parents are Alfredo Costales Samaniego and the late Piedad Peñaherrera de Costales, does not give the bibliographic particulars of the alleged pirate edition. But Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse published his transcription first (in 1976, three years before Costales Peñaherrera presented the licentiate thesis to which he appended as an "anexo documental" the ordenanzas in question), a contemporary copy of which Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse long since saw in the Archivo General de Indias. Furthermore, Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse is a reputable scholar. Unfortunately and most regrettably, Costales Peñaherrera's ill founded remarks are symptomatic of the poorly grounded scholarship that afflicts some historical publications in Ecuador.

1369. Cruz Zúñiga, Pilar. "Mestizos e indígenas en la Real Audiencia de Quito: (segunda mitad del siglo XVIII)," Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 89-115.

Tabulates and analyzes the demographic, economic, and social characteristics of mestizos according to the data presented in petitions of mestizaje and related sources.

1370. Cushner, Nicholas P. Farm and Factory: The Jesuits and the Development of Agrarian Capitalism in Colonial Quito, 1600-1767. Albany: State University of New York, 1982. viii, 231 p.

An exceptionally important study of the agrarian history of the colonial period. Demonstrates integration of obrajes and haciendas inasmuch as the Jesuits produced their own wool and other inputs. Andean and lay Spanish textile factories, however, may have been mostly dependent upon the vagaries of the market for raw materials. Based on extensive research in Ecuador, Spain, and the Jesuit archives in Rome. Regrettably not a work that has had much impact on historiography in Ecuador, at least not as of July 1997. Not known to Manuel Miño Grijalva, for example (see items 1435 and 1436).

1371. Chacón, Jorge. Raíces hispánicas de ecuatorianidad. Quito: Prensa Católica, 1953. 247 p.

A defense of the conquest, the mother country, and the Catholic Church.

1372. Chandler, David L. "Slave Over Master in Colonial Colombia and Ecuador," The Americas, 38:3 (Jan. 1982), 315-326.

Barely touches upon slavery in the Audiencia/Presidency of Quito.

1373. Descalzi, Ricardo. Historias de la Real Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Publicaciones ESPE, 1990. 4 v.

A curious set of some interest inasmuch as Descalzi sheds some light on several themes that had not received sufficient attention although they had not been altogether neglected either. Literally pocketbooks lacking tables of contents, indexes, or proper documentation. However, Descalzi knew the colonial period well and therefore is worth reading. Contents: t. 1, Historia colonial de la plaza mayor de San Francisco de Quito; t. 2, Historia de las misiones amazónicas de la Real Audiencia de Quito; t. 3, Agua, higiene y medicina de la Quito colonial; t. 4, Las revoluciones en la colonia.

1374. Destruge, Camilo. "La esclavitud en el Ecuador," Boletín de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 3:27 (mayo 1912), 33-44; 3:28 (jun. 1912), 49-62; 3:29 (jul. 1912), 65-74.

Methodologically long since surpassed but still useful for the data contained. Some of the sources Destruge consulted no longer survive or have deteriorated beyond the point of being decipherable.

1375. Documentos para la historia de la Audiencia de Quito, investigación y compilación por José Rumazo González. Madrid: A. Aguado, 1948-1950. 8 v.

A substantial set of apparently accurately transcribed primary sources from the Archivo General de Indias and other peninsular repositories. Well indexed (chronologically, by person, and by place). Nominally devoted to materials relating to Pedro Vicente Maldonado, Rumazo González interpreted his charge broadly to include multiple sources from the entire colonial period having to do with Maldonado in one way or another and the road to Esmeraldas, including its antecedents and post-Maldonado resurrections. Given the nature of these materials, almost every student of the colonial period will find some, if not considerable, data of importance in them. Vol. 5, for example, reprints La Condamine's Journal du voyage fait par ordre du roi, a l'Equateur ... (Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1751) and his Histoire des pyramides de Quito ... ([Paris: Imprimerie Royale], 1751), and publishes the "Expediente sobre las pirámides de Yaruquí (1740-1749)." And vol. 8, to cite two other examples, includes a lengthy expediente on the erection of the Diocesis of Cuenca and published for the first time José Romualdo Navarro's 1761 "Idea del Reino de Quito."

1376. "Documentos sobre el camino de Ibarra a Esmeraldas," [transcripciones de] Carlos Manuel Larrea, Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 36:87 (ene./jun. 1956), 120-121.

See also items 1364, 1365, 1400, and 1507.

1377. La Economía colonial: relaciones socio-económicas de la Real Audiencia de Quito, introducción y selección, Manuel Miño Grijalva. [Quito]: Corporación Editora Nacional, 1984. 322 p.

Reprints six standard accounts of the late colonial period: 1) Miguel de Santiesteban's "Viaje muy puntual y curioso que hace por tierra ... desde Lima hasta Caracas en 1740 y 1741"; 2) José Romualdo Navarro's "Idea del Reino de Quito" (1761); 3-5) Francisco José de Caldas's "Viaje al corazón de Barnuevo" (1804) "Viajes al sur de Quito" (1804); and "Viaje de Quito a Popayán" (1805); and 6) Andrés Baleato's "Monografía de Guayaquil" (1820). Also Miño's "Estudio introductorio" (p. 13-85), at the time of the publication of this work, was a useful introduction to the population and economic history of the colonial period.

1378. Espinosa Fernández de Córdoba, Carlos R. "La mascarada del Inca: una investigación acerca del teatro político de la colonia," Miscelánea histórica ecuatoriana, 2:2 (1989), 7-39.

A detailed analysis of the multifaceted roles memory of the Sapa Inca played in colonial society. In this case the Inca was represented not just allegorically in fiestas or iconographically in processions but also in the person of don Alonso Arena Florencia Inca, a great grandson of Atahualpa--therefore an auqui--and the corregidor of Ibarra in the 1660s.

1379. Fernandez Martínez, Montserrat. La alcabala en la Audiencia de Quito, 1765-1810. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Azuay, 1984. 185 p.

An original licentiate thesis on the administration and collection of sales tax during the reigns of Charles III and IV, and on the socioeconomic impact of the Bourbon reforms on the "upper class" of the city of Quito as revealed by analysis of real estate sales and other transactions. A novel study that illuminates many aspects of the period.

1380. Fiehrer, Thomas. "El camino a Esmeraldas: un problema en la administración del Reino de Quito, 1790-1807," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 7:13 (jun. 1978), 59-75.

Reexamines Carondelet's attempts to reopen the road from Quito to Esmeraldas. Based on original research in the Archivo General de Indias and the ANH/Q.

1381. Flores, Antonio. El Reino de Quito según las relaciones de los virreyes del Nuevo Reino de Granada, las de antiguos autores, etc. Santiago [de Chile], 1870. 50 p.

Consists of excerpts and notes from eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century sources. For the complete texts of the relaciones de mando excerpted see items 1455 and 1456.

1382. Flores Jaramillo, Renán. "Notas históricas sobre el terremoto de 1797: sacadas del Archivo de Indias de Sevilla," Museo Histórico, 4:12/13 (1952), 67-70.

1383. Fuentealba, Gerardo. "Forasteros, comunidades indígenas, Estado y grupos de poder en la Audiencia de Quito, siglo XVIII," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 4:8 (1990), 59-98.

Reexamines the increase in forasteros in the eighteenth century. Maintains that Indians employed migration as an agency to reduce amount of tribute they were charged, to avoid mita, and to obtain and therefore to retain land and usage thereof. Fuentealba's first and second conclusions have been substantiated for the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as well by Karen Powers (see item 5421). Fuentealba also reexamines the largely succesful efforts of the state under the Bourbons to rationalize tribute schedules and to exact more tribute from Indians and the socioeconomic consequences thereof.

1384. Gangotena y Jijón, Cristóbal de. "Indice cronológico de los abogados recibidos en la Real Audiencia de Quito," Boletín de la Biblioteca Nacional, 4/5 (ene./feb. 1921), 136-144; 6/7 (mar./abr. 1921), 209-221; 8/15 (mayo/dic. 1921), 273-283.

Includes biographical notes.

1385. Gangotena y Jijón, Cristóbal de. "Un proyecto de camino de Quito a Guayaquil en el siglo XVIII," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 1:2 (nov./dic. 1920), 242-250.

Publishes with an introduction "Informe de Miguel Agustín de Olmedo" on the need to open an all weather road between the capital and the port city. Miguel Agustín was the father of José Joaquín Olmedo.

1386. González Pujana, Laura. "Minería y trabajo indígena en los Andes: Guamanga y Zaruma," Revista complutense de historia de América, 18 (1992), 117-131.

A comparative study of the assignation of Indian labor in the 1500s to the mines of Guamanga (in Peru) and Zaruma in the southern highlands.

1387. González S., Víctor A. Crítica a las concepciones de razas y clases en la colonia, según los historiadores nacionales, 2 ed. Guayaquil: Ed. Graba, 1986. 156 p.

A thoughtful analysis and digest of idiosyncratically selected literature on social and economic history of the colonial period.

1388. González Suárez, Federico. Historia general de la República del Ecuador. Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1890-1903. 7 v.

The classic Old Guard account of the pre-Hispanic and colonial periods. Primarily concerned with political and ecclesiastical events yet notable for the inclusion of some economic and social developments. Based on archival research in Ecuador, Spain, Peru, and other countries. Sometimes described as having been issued in eight volumes, depending upon the copy seen. In some sets the plates to the Atlas arqueológico were/are bound separately. Vol. 1 and accompanying Atlas arqueológico discourse on "Tiempos antiguos, o, El Ecuador antes de la conquista." N.B. The archbishop-historian was one of the advocates of Mayan influence on the culture and languages of pre-Inca ethnic groups of Ecuador, especially of the coast. The Atlas arqueológico contains text as well as illustrations. Regardless of their artistic merit, the latter are of no scientific importance, being reproductions of pen-and-ink drawings that do not depict the original artefacts in detail or to scale. Vols. 2-5 are a detailed account of the political and ecclesiastical history of the highlands and the coast with some consideration of economic and social developments during the colonial period, beginning with the Spanish conquest and terminating with the Presidency of the Barón de Carondelet. Vol. 6 is given over to the history of the Oriente and vol. 7, to cultural developments during the colonial period. Available in several reprints. See also the archbishop-historian's Historia eclesiástica (item 5034) with which his Historia general has been confused by some scholars.

Although González Suárez is one of the most important icons, if not the most import, of modern Ecuadorian historiography, he has been praised and criticized far more often than he has been read. In part this is because no textbook edition of his work exists except for the Elementos de Historia general de la República del Ecuador (Quito: Prensa Católica, 1915; iv, 148 p.), a question and answer primer on the "prehistory" of the country. There is, however, an abridged version; see item 1452.

1389. González Suárez, Federico. Obras escogidas, prólogo y selección del Sr. Dn. Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño. Quito: Impr. del Ministerio de Gobierno, 1944. li, 518 p.

Partial contents: "Memorias íntimas"; "Notas arqueológicas"; "Memoria histórica sobe Mutís y la expedición botánica de Bogotá"; "Un opúsculo inédito de don Francisco José de Caldas"; "Manifiesto a los ecuatorianos."

1390. Guerra, Sabrina. "Los 'ilegítimos' de la sociedad colonial," Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 21-35.

A working paper on mestizos, the majority of whom appear to have been "illegitimate," according to quantitative and qualitative analysis of sample of 40 cases of petitions of declaration of mestizaje presented between 1731 and 1797.

1391. Guerrero, Andrés. "Los obrajes en la Real Audiencia de Quito en el siglo XVII y su relación con el Estado colonial," Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 1:2 (1977), 65-89.

1392. Guerrero, Andrés; and Rafael Quintero. "La transición colonial y el rol del Estado en la Real Audiencia de Quito," Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 1:2 (1977), 13-57.

See also the "Comentario" by Fernando Velasco Abad (p. 59-63). Items 1391 and 1392 together with item 1532 are watersheds in Ecuadorian historiography because Guerrero, Quintero, and Velasco, then young Turks, brought to bear concerns and methods of the Social Sciences on the colonial period--previously the domain of autodidacts and traditionalists, for the most part (at least within Ecuador itself), with little or no interest in demographic, economic, or social history. Also published as: "La formación y rol del Estado colonial en la Real Audiencia de Quito: algunos elementos para su análisis," Revista mexicana de sociología, 39:2 (abr./jun. 1977), 611-674.

Subsequently Guerrero and Quintero devoted themselves primarily to the national period and have produced some of the best studies on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries heretofore done. The equally promising Velasco Abad, however, died the following year.

1393. Guevara Gil, Armando; and Frank Salomon. "A 'Personal Visit': Colonial Political Ritual and the Making of Indians in the Andes," Colonial Latin American Review, 3:1/2 (1994), 3-36.

The visita in question is that of 1623 to the Collaguazos, a dispersed ethnic group in and around Quito. Neither mitimaes nor forasteros, their paramount cacique apparently resided in Pomasqui. What the authors are trying to tell us about how to read this and other visitas is not altogether clear, but apparently Guevara-Gil and Salomon mean that we should try and steep ourselves in the totality, not just the mentality, of the time and place and then somehow recreate and explicate that decidedly other time and place in postmodernistic qualitative discourse.

1394. Herrán Baquero, Marío. El virrey don Antonio Amar y Borbon: la crisis del régimen colonial en la Nueva Granada. Bogotá: Banco de la República, 1988. 368 p.

Includes a discussion of developments in the Presidency of Quito during Amar's viceregency.

1395. Herzog, Tamar. Los ministros de la Audiencia de Quito, 1650-1750. Quito: Libri-Mundi Enrique Grosse-Luemern, 1995. 170 p.

A dictionary of presidents and oidores of the Audiencia during the second half of the seventeenth century and the first half of the eighteenth. Organized alphabetically. Each entry delineates career (in, before, and after being posted to Quito), family data, and sources as appropriate. A basic reference.

1396. Herzog, Tamar. "Sobre justicia, honor y grado militar en Quito, s. XVIII," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 6 (II sem. 1994), 49-57.

Examines claims of civilian presidents in the 1700s to title of captain general in addition to those of president and governor general. Illumines overlapping concepts of "justice, honor, and military rank" and therefore mentalities of period.

1397. Ibarra, Alexia. "La condición del mestizaje en el contexto de las reformas borbónicas (segunda mitad del siglo XVIII)," Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 55-75.

A solid but somewhat sketchy analysis of 274 petitions of declarations of mestizje presented between 1780 and 1815, and the impact of the decree of 1764.

1398. Ibarra, Hernán. "Haciendas y concertaje al fin de la época colonial en el Ecuador: (un análisis introductorio)," Revista andina, 6:11 (jul. 1988), 175-200.

Apparently a study of the Hacienda Chisinche.

1399. Imbernón, José María. "La Real Audiencia de Quito: reflexiones en torno al contrabando colonial," Revista mexicana de sociología, 68:1 (ene./mar. 1986), 87-113.

A thought-provoking study of the implications of what amounted to the institutionalization of illicit trade.

1400. "Importante documento acerca del camino de Ibarra a Esmeraldas," [transcripción de] Carlos Manuel Larrea, Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 36:88 (jul./dic. 1956), 255.

1401. Jácome, Nicanor. "Economía y sociedad en el siglo XVI," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 3, p. 123-160.

A reexamination of the economic and social structures of the early colonial period. Reflects some original research.

1402. Jácome, Nicanor. "La tributación indígena en el Ecuador," Sarance, 2 (feb. 1976), 79-107.

Sketches the history of Indian tribute in Ecuador from its take over by the Spaniards through its final abolition in 1857. Based on original research. Also published in: Bulletin de l'Institut d'etudes andines, 3:1 (1974), 49-80; and as: "La tributación indígena como un mecanismo de explotación durante la colonia y primeros años de independencia," Economía: revista del Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Financieras, 60 (marzo 1974), 44-86. And in English as: "Ecuador, the Indigenous Tribute System as a Mechanism of Exploitation during the Colonial Period and the First Years of Independence," Western Expansion and Indigenous Peoples: the Heritage of Las Casas, edited by Elias Sevilla-Casas (The Hague: Mouton, 1977), p. 87-119.

1403. Jara, Alvaro; and John Jay TePaske. Eighteenth-Century Ecuador. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990. xxii, 169 p. (The Royal Treasuries of the Spanish Empire; vol. 4)

Publishes the annual cartas cuentas for Cuenca (1722-1803), Guayaquil (1714-1804), Jaén de Bracamoros (1762-1792), and Quito (1702-1813), all of which constitute exceptionally important record groups for the study of the economic as well as of the financial history of the Audiencia at large during the late colonial period. Based almost entirely on research in the Archivo General de Indias.

1404. Jaramillo Pérez, César. "El trabajo en la colonia," Revista del Instituto de Trabajo y de Investigaciones Sociales, 1 (1961), 75-85.

1405. Jerves, Alfonso A. Apuntes de historia ecuatoriana, o, Materiales paleográficas de historia patria. Cuenca: Tall. de "El Progreso," 1919. [83] p. in various paginations (i.e., 35, 12, 8, 12, 16)

Contents: "Guayaquil, sus primeras noticias paleográfico-históricas, 1557-1564"; "La Real Audiencia de Quito: sus primeras provisiones, 1564"; "El primer monasterio fundado en el Ecuador, 1575-1577"; "Don Marcos de Lamar, 1771-1777"; "El periodismo en Cuenca: el fundador de él, el Padre Solano, 1828."

1406. Jiménez de la Espada, Marcos. Relaciones geográficas de Indias: Perú, edición y estudio preliminar por José Urbano Martínez Carreras. Madrid: Ediciones Atlas, 1965. 4 v. in 3. (Biblioteca de autores españoles desde la formación del lenguaje hasta nuestros días [continuación]; 183-185)

Originally published between 1881 and 1897: Madrid: Tip. de M.G. Hernández. Vols. 3 and 4 are largely given over to sixteenth- and seventeenth-century accounts of the Presidency of Quito, district by district. Basic sources for the ethnohistory as well as historical demography and geography of the first half of the colonial period. See also items 1493 and 1494.

1407. Jurado Noboa, Fernando. "Algunas reflexiones sobre la tenencia de los esclavos en la colonia, 1536-1826," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 22 (ago. 1992), 93-101.

Consists of research notes, mostly drawn from notarial records.

1408. Jurado Noboa, Fernando. "El estrato de los caciques en el primer siglo del coloniaje, 1534-1634," Colección Amigos de la Genealogía, 23 (nov. 1986), 239-244.

1409. Kuethe, Allan J. Military Reform and Society in New Granada, 1773-1808. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1978. 234 p.

Includes sections on the military reforms undertaken by the Bourbons in the Presidency of Quito and the implications thereof.

1410. Landázuri Camacho, Carlos. "De las guerras civiles a la insurrección de las alcabalas (1537-1593)," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 3, p. 161-210.

An able account of political developments from the civil wars of the conquistadores through the "rebellion" of the alcabalas.

1411. Landázuri Camacho, Carlos. "El Dr. Antonio de Morga: octavo presidente de la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1615-1636," Quitumbe, 3:3 (1973), 1-112.

The author's M.A. thesis. Although based on original research, marred by reliance on the not altogether reliable Vacas Galindo collection.

1412. Landázuri Soto, Alberto. El regimen laboral indígena en la Real Audiencia de Quito. Madrid: A. Landázuri Soto, 1959. 223 p.

Primarily a compendium of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century documents, the originals of which are in the Archivo General de Indias, on various aspects of Indian labor, especially the regulation thereof.

1413. Langue, Fréderique. "Minas ecuatorianas de principios del siglo XIX: 'sanguijuelas' y 'holgazanes'," Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Sección del Azuay, 6 (1986), 101-124.

A novel reexamination of the state of mining in the early 1800s. Based on reports in the Archivo General de Indias on the silver strike at Condorasto in the central highlands and the by then virtually depleted gold mines of Zaruma in the southern highlands. A significant contribution to the economic history of the late colonial period.

1414. Larraín, Carlos J. "D. Santiago de Larraín y Vicuña, presidente del Reino de Quito," Boletín de la Academia Chilena de Historia, 11:30 (1944), 4-37.

A well documented biography of the nineteenth president of the Audiencia. Larraín y Vicuña (1666-1748) had the distinction of governing Quito before the dissolution of the Audiencia (1715-1720) and after its restoration (1722-1728) during Quito's first annexation to Nueva Granada. Unfortunately, the author has little to say about his ancestor's turns as president of Quito.

1415. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Cartografía ecuatoriana de los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII. Quito: Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1977. 177 p.

Well researched and textually sound. The maps, however, are poorly reproduced.

1416. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Cuarto centenario de la creación y fundación de la Audiencia y Presidencia de Quito," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 45:102 (jul./dic. 1963), 151-170.

An important statement of the myth on which altogether too much Ecuadorian historiography and nationalism used and to some extent continues to be based, that the Audiencia de Quito was founded in "reconocimiento de la existencia de una circunscripción territorial dotada de vida propia y de carácter particular en lo geográfico, histórico, etnográfico y político, que necesitaba, por consiguiente de gobierno propio."

1417. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. El presidente de la Real Audiencia de Quito, Dn. Dionisio de Alsedo y Herrera. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1961. 52 p.

Reprint; originally published as: "Don Dionisio de Alsedo y Herrera," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 50:109 (ene./jun. 1967), 57-80. A useful summary of the life and career of the twenty-second president of the Audiencia.

1418. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. "Primeros mapas en que aparece territorio ecuatoriano y su más antique toponimia," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 44:100 (jul./dic. 1962), 149-160.

A chronological account of the earliest maps that take in what is now Ecuadorian territory, beginning with Diego Ribera's world map of 1529.

1419. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. La Real Audiencia de Quito y su territorio. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1963. 138 p.

Reprints items 1416 and 1418 and adds an additional chapter on "Cartografía de la Real Audiencia de Quito." Unfortunately as in the case of item 1415, the maps are not well reproduced. Reprinted: Quito: Dirección General de Información, Impr. del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, 1987. 152 p.

1420. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. El vigesimonono presidente de la Real Audiencia de Quito, Barón Luis Héctor de Carondelet. Quito: Edit. Fray Jodoco Ricke, 1971. 217 p.

A detailed, well documented and researched study of the presidency of Carondelet (1798-1806). Originally published in: Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 51:111 (ene./jun. 1968), 20-37; 51:112 (jul./dic. 1968), 155-177; 52:113 (ene./jun. 1969), 43-64; 52:114 (jul./dic. 1969), 236-255; 53:115 (ene./jun. 1970), 47-71.

1421. Larrea y Villavicencio, Juan de. "Las manufacturas de la Provincia de Quito," introducción y transcripción por Christian Büschges, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 9 (II sem., 1996) 139-143.

A brief but highly informative and heretofore unknown 1802 description of textile and other "industries" in the northern and central highlands by an exceptionally literate hacendado and obrajero. See also item 1710.

1422. Lavallé, Bernard. "El cuestionamiento de la esclavitud en Quito a finales de la época colonial," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 6 (II sem. 1994), 23-48.

An original study of the scrutiny of slavery as a morally acceptable institution during the late colonial period, interesting enough, by slaves as well as by their masters. Also examines ways in which slaves could obtain or were granted freedom.

1423. Lavallé, Bernard. "Lógica esclavista y resistencia negra en los Andes ecuatorianos a finales del siglo XVIII," Revista de Indias, 53:199 (sept./dic. 1993), 699-722.

Delineates and documents three instances of slave resistance (through flight) to abusive treatment by lay administrators and new owners of former Jesuit estates (in the northern highlands.

1424. Lenz-Volland, Birgit; and Martin Volland. "Ostras, perlas y púrpura: su uso durante el época colonial hasta comienzos de la independencia en el Ecuador occidental," Miscelánea antropológica ecuatoriana, 6:6 (1986), 49-69.

A preliminary study of the use of shellfish as a foodstuff and a source for dye during the colonial period. Based on published materials.

1425. León Borja, Dora; and Adám Szászdi. "Respaldo de los caciques de la Provincia de Quito a Salazar de Villasante," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:118 (jul./dic. 1971), 284-285.

Publishes a 1564 petition by various caciques requesting the crown to appoint Juan de Salazar de Villasante an oidor of the Audiencia. Important as a list of ethnic lords.

1426. Lucena Salmoral, Manuel. Sangre sobre piel negra: la esclavitud quiteña en el contexto del reformismo borbónico. Quito: Centro Cultural Afroecuatoriano: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1994. 245 p. (Colección "Mundo Afro"; 1)

The first major study of slavery in the Audiencia. Far from exhaustive, however, not just in terms of surviving sources but curiously enough, also secondary studies. Includes an appendix of documents.

1427. Luna Yepes, Jorge. Síntesis histórica y geográfica del Ecuador. Quito: Salesiana, 1944. 258 p.

Primarily a study of the colonial period. The author, one of the founders of ARNE, is unabashedly pro-Hispanic.

1428. Maier S., Jorge. "Historia postal de Quito, 1534-1864," Cultura, 8:23 (sept./dic. 1985), 223-258.

A history of postal service prior to the emission of stamps. Based on archival research.

1429. Maiguashca, Juan. "El desplazamiento regional y la burguesía en el Ecuador, 1760-1860," Segundo encuentro de historia y realidad económica y social del Ecuador (item 574), vol. 1, p. 23-39.

Outlines demographic, economic, and social changes in the central-south coast and the highlands during the late colonial, independence, and early national periods. Maintains that economically there were two periods, 1760-1820 or the "primer auge cacaotero," and the second, 1820-1860 or "el embotellamiento del cacao." Suggestive of the promising research in which Maiguascha was engaged but the results of which he never seems to have fleshed out.

1430. Marchán Romero, Carlos. "Economía y sociedad durante el siglo XVIII," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 231-259.

An important reexamination of economic developments of the 1700s. Especially concerned with the so-called economic crisis of the late colonial period. Includes new data drawn from archival research. Originally published in: Cultura, 8:24a (ene./abr. 1986), 55-76.

1431. Marchán Romero, Carlos. "La sierra centro-norte del Ecuador: su delimitación geográfico-conceptual y su economía en el siglo XVII," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 12, segundo semestre 1995, p. 59-90.

Less than half of this article is actually dedicated to the seventeenth century. The rest consists of general remarks on the region or regions (northern highlands vis-a-vis central highlands) and economic developments of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

1432. Marchán Romero, Carlos. "El sistema hacendario serrano, movilidad y cambio social," Cultura, 7:19 (mayo/ago. 1984), 63-106.

Outlines the agrarian history of the highlands during the colonial period. Proposes two cycles: 1) that of textiles (1500s-1700); and 2) that of cacao (1700-1820), the latter of which continued through the early 1900s.

1433. Mills, Nick D., Jr.; and Gonzalo Ortiz Chiriboga. "Economía y sociedad en el Ecuador poscolonial, 1759-1859," Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 71-152.

A pioneering attempt to pull together traditional and newer scholarsip on demographic, economic, and social trends and developments in the country as a whole during the neocolonial period. Presented at the "Simposio sobre el Ecuador en 1830." See also the "Críticas y comentarios" thereof in: ibid., p. 153-167. Also published in abridgement as: "Economía y sociedad en el período de la independencia (1780-1845)" in Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 6, p. 127-163.

1434. Miño Grijalva, Manuel. "La economía de la Real Audiencia de Quito," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 47-103.

A revisionist study of population and economic history of the seventeenth century. Not altogether satisfactory insofar as the demographic developments of the 1600s are concerned, but well worth reading when it comes to economic developments.

1435. Miño Grijalva, Manuel. La protoindustria colonial hispanoamericana, 1a.. México: El Colegio de México; Fideicomiso Historia de las Américas; Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1993. 227 p.

A comparative study of textile manufacturing in the Presidency of Quito, Lower Peru, and New Spain. Especially concerned with labor issues. Based on archival research as well as the appropriate literature.

1436. Miño Grijalva, Manuel. La manufactura colonial: la constitución técnica del obraje. México: Centro de Estudios Históricos, El Colegio de México, 1993. 204 p.

Also a comparative study of textile manufacturing in the Presidency of Quito, Lower Peru, and New Spain, but with an emphasis on the technological aspects of the industry. N.B. These two important books by Miño Grijalva do not appear to have been adequately known in Ecuador or by Ecuadorianists, at least as of July 1997.

See also Miño Grijalava's earlier "Capital comercial y trabajo textil: tendencias generales de la protoindustria colonial latinoamericana," HISLA, 9 (1987), 57-79; "La manufacturera colonial: aspectos comparativos entre el obraje andino y el novohispano," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 2:4 (1988), 13-6; and "El obraje colonial," Revista europea de estudios latinoamericanos y del Caribe, 47 (dic. 1989), 3-19.

1437. Montenegro, Fernando; and Patricia Gudiño. Las mitas en la Real Audiencia de Quito: (su aplicación en los obrajes y transición hacia el concertaje). Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1985. 50 p.

A brief, didactic work on the forced labor system employed during the colonial period to obtain indigenous workers, especially for textile sweat shops in the north-central highlands. Consists more of illustrations, pen and ink drawings by Segundo Obando, than of text. Apparently intended for high school students and/or campesinos. Of no scholarly value. But indicative of how misleading library catalog records can sometimes be. Erroneously subject headed in OCLC: "Indians of South America -- Ecuador -- Quito -- Religion and mythology"; "Indians of South America -- Ecuador -- Quito -- Legends."

1438. Moore, John Preston. The Cabildo in Peru under the Hapsburgs: A Study in the Origins and Powers of the Town Council in the Viceroyalty of Peru, 1530-1700. Durham: Duke University Press, 1954. 309 p.

Includes coverage of the Cabildo of Quito.

1439. Mora, Alfonso María. "Reseña de instituciones colonizadoras y mineras," Revista del Centro de Estudios Históricos y Geográficos de Cuenca, 29 (oct. 1937), 70-99; 30 (ene. 1938), 170-192; 31 (abr. 1938), 242-266.

Incomplete. Supposed to have been continued. May safely be ignored partly because Mora appears to have had little to say about institutions and mining in the country during the colonial period, but mostly because his work has long since been superseded.

1440. Moreno Proaño, Agustín. "La formación del mestizaje según los cronistas," Colección Amigos de la Genealogía, 24 (nov. 1987), individually paginated.

1441. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. Alzamientos indígenas en la Audiencia de Quito, 1534-1803 = Runacunapaj macanacuicuna, versión Quichua, Abel Inga Tenesaca, Carlos Moreno Maldonado. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1987. 72 p.

A popular overview in Spanish and Quichua.

1442. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. "Los 'caciques mayores': renacimiento de su concepto en Quito a finales de la colonia," Antropología ecuatoriana, 1 (mar. 1978), 31-39.

1443. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. "De las formas tribales al señorío étnico: don García Tulcanaza y la inserción de una jefatura en la formación socio-económica colonial," Arqueología y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 253-263.

1444. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. "Los doctrineros 'Wiracochas' recreadores de nuevas formas culturales: estudios de caso en el Quito colonial," Reproducción y transformación de las sociedades andinas, siglos XVI-XX: simposio auspiciado por el Social Science Research Council, SSRC, Segundo Moreno Y., Frank Salomon, compiladores, 1 ed. (Quito: Abya-Yala; Roma: MLAL, Movimiento Laicos para América Latina, 1991), t. 2, p. 529-553.

Reexamines the role of Catholic priests as agents of cultural change and continuity during the colonial period. On the one hand, the clergy was largely responsible for substantive changes in indigenous culture, including the imposition of Quichua as a lingua franca. On the other, some doctrineros acculturated and to some extent helped preserve elements of the very culture the majority of their brethren sought to replace.

1445. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. "Elementos para una análisis de la sociedad indígena en la Audiencia de Quito," Sarance, 6 (1978), 79-89.

An analysis of the then state of the art of ethnohistorical and historical studies regarding indigenous groups during the colonial period. In that regard somewhat dated, but timeless insofar as Moreno Yánez's discussion of primary sources (published and archival) is concerned. Reprinted in item 607.

1446. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. "El 'formulario de las ordenanzas de indios': una regulación de las relaciones laborales en las haciendas y obrajes del Quito colonial y republicano," Ibero-Amerikanisches Archiv, n.f., 5:3 (1979), 227-241.

Publishes and comments upon an 1851 "Formulario de las ordenanzas de indios" found among the private papers of a highland hacienda. Although this document dates from the mid-nineteenth century, it is based on autos issued by the Audiencia of Quito a century or more earlier. Reprinted in item 607.

1447. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. "La sociedad indígena y su articulación a la formación socioeconómica colonial en la Audiencia de Quito," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 5, p. 93-136.

A reexamination of the role of Indians in the society and economy of the colony and of the impact of the Spanish conquest and the established colony on Indian societies and polities by a leading ethnohistorian.

1448. Moreno Yánez, Segundo E. Sublevaciones indígenas en la Audiencia de Quito: desde comienzos del siglo XVIII hasta finales de la colonia, 3 ed. corr. y aum. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1985. 453 p.

A revised edition of author's Ph. thesis, published under the same title: Bonn: Bonner amerikanistische Studien, 1976. The first systematic study of Indian uprisings in the highlands during the late colonial period. Comprehensive, well researched, and methodologically sound. As of the late 1990s, no comparable work for either the colonial period as a whole or the national period existed, but a more or less complete, although not always reliable, summary of indigenous movements during the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century could be found in an otherwise not recommendable work, Oswaldo Albornoz Peralta's Las luchas indígenas en el Ecuador (Guayaquil: Edit. Claridad , 1976; 226 p.).

1449. Mörner, Magnus. "Aspectos socioraciales del proceso de poblamiento de la Audiencia de Quito durante los siglos XVI y XVII," Homenaje a José María de la Peña y Cámara (Madrid: Ediciones Porrua, 1969), p. 265-287.

Demonstrates that attempts of the early colonial period to resettle Indians into reducciones were only partially successful in the highlands and that royal decrees prohibiting Spaniards from residing in Indian pueblos were ignored. Reprinted in: Memoria, MARKA, año 1, no. 1 (nov. 1990), 43-56.

1450. Moscoso, M.C. "Indígenas y ciudades en el siglo XVI," Las Ciudades en la historia (item 558), p. 343-356.

As it turned out, this item should have been included under "Historia urbana" as it is a study of the interaction between Spaniards and Andeans in Cuenca during the second half of the sixteenth century.

1451. Moscoso C., Lucía. "Aproximación al estudio de los diezmos en la Real Audiencia de Quito," Quitumbe, 8 (jun. 1994), 127-140.

A preliminary study of tithes. As the late 1990s, only Andrien had also utilized tithe data to examine the rural sector of the economy (see item 1343).

1452. Moscoso R., Leonardo. Compendio de la Historia general de la República del Ecuador. Ambato: Impr. y Librería Escolar de Ricardo Costales, 1920-1924. 3 v.

An abridgement of González Suárez's Historia general (item 1388)

1453. Moya Torres, Luz del Alba. Auge y crisis de la cascarilla en la Audiencia de Quito, siglo XVIII, 1 ed. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Ecuador, 1994. 251 p.

Another original master's thesis from FLACSO. Outlines, to some extent fleshes out, and analyzes what had been a virtually unknown chapter in the economic history of the late colonial period, the trade in cinchona bark, the source of quinine. A solid study based on research in archives of Cuenca and Quito.

1454. Muñoz Borrero, Eduardo. Entonces fuimos España, 1492-1822, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. Gráficas Iberia, 1989. 765 p.

A popular, semi-anecdotal history of the colonial and independence periods.

1455. Nueva Granada (Virreinato). Relaciones de mando de los virreyes de la Nueva Granada: memorias económicas, edición preparada por Gabriel Giraldo Jaramillo. Bogotá: Banco de la República, 1954. 283 p.

1456. Nueva Granada (Virreinato). Relaciones de los virreyes del Nuevo Reino de Granada, ahora Estados Unidos de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Colombia y Ecuador ..., compiladas y publicadas por José Antonio García y García. Nueva York: Impr. de Hallet & Breen, 1869. xx, 705 p.

Items 1455 and 1456, the latter of which is only partially superseded by the former, are basic sources for the study of the administration of the Presidency of Quito during the years it was subordinated to the Viceroyalty of New Granada (1717-1720 and 1739-1822). They also include demographic, economic, and social data.

1457. Núñez Sánchez, Jorge. "Familias, elites y sociedades regionales en la Audiencia de Quito, 1750-1822," Historia de la mujer y la familia (Quito: Editora Nacional, 1991), p. 171-224.

A pioneering essay on the composition and renovation of the creole aristocracy during the late colonial period, the differences in attitudes and ideologies of the elites by region, and their respective roles in the movements for independence. Based almost entirely on archival reseach either in the Archivo General de Indias itself or on Banco Central's microfilm copies of Archivo General de Indias materials. See also Núñez Sánchez's "Oligarquías regionales y familias oligárquicas en el Ecuador, 1765-1912," Europa e Iberoamérica: cinco siglos de intercambios: actas, IX Congreso Internacional de Historia de América (Sevilla: Asociación de Historiadores Latinoamericanos Europeos [AHILA]; Consejería de Cultura y Medio Ambiente [Junta de Andalucía], 1992), vol. 1, p. 107-125. Although the latter is a notable attempt to examine a neglected question, the relationship between regional oligarchies and oligarchy families, unfortunately Núñez Sánchez puts the cart before the horse; he presupposes that the basic characteristics of said families are known and that they were static. The former was hardly true and the latter, fallacious.

1458. O'Phelan Godoy, Scarlett. "Rebeliones anticoloniales: Nueva Granada, Perú y Charcas entre el siglo XVIII y el XIX," Anuario de estudios americanos, 49 (1992), 395-440.

Includes a discussion of the 1765 uprising of the barrios of Quito, other late colonial "rebellions" in the highlands, and of the "revolutions" of 1809 and 1810-1812. See also O'Phelan's "Por el rey, religión y patria: las juntas de gobierno de 1809 en La Paz y Quito," Bulletin de l'Institut français d'etudes andines, 17:2 (1988), 51-80.

1459. "Orden de traslado a Bogotá del Archivo de la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1720," ARNAHIS, 11:17 (ago. 1968), 4-6.

Fortunately this order was not implemented, but it is an interesting commentary on the bureaucratic mentality of the empire and on what sometimes happened and still happens to archives, reorganization and/or transfer to other repository.

1460. Ordóñez de Cevallos, Pedro. Viage del mundo. Madrid: Luis Sánchez, 1614. [10], 290, [4] leaves.

The memoirs and travelogue of a soldier turned priest who spent some years among the Quijos, the Cofanes, and in the city of Quito during the late 1500s and early 1600s. Invaluable but beware the element of fable. The corresponding chapters are reproduced in: Cronistas coloniales (item 1318), vol. 2, p. 477-519; and the work as a whole has been reprinted several times (e.g., Madrid: Aguilar, 1958).

1461. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. "Economie et société à Quito (1765-1810)," L'Amérique espagnole à l'époque des Lumières: tradition, innovation, représentations: (Colloque franco-espagnol du CNRS, 18-20 septembre 1986) (Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1987), p. 161-176.

A cogent review of economic and social developments, especially in the highlands, during the late colonial period. Based on appropriate literature as well as the author's own considerable original research. Also published in Spanish as: "Economía y sociedad en Quito (1765-1810)," La América Española en el siglo de las luces: tradición, innovación, representaciones: Coloquio franco-español, Maison des Pays Ibériques, Burdeos, 18-20 septiembre 1986 (Madrid: Ediciones de Cultura Hispánica, 1988), p. 183-199.

1462. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. Los encomenderos de Quito, 1534-1660: origen y evolución de una élite colonial. Sevilla: Escuela de Estudios Hispanoamericanos, 1993. xvi, 377 p.

The first major study of encomienda holders in the highlands. A social history pieced together from a wide variety of sources, mostly original. A remarkable tour de force inasmuch as the majority of encomienda records per se for the Presidency of Quito do not appear to have survived. Delineates and elucidates emergence of regional and local elites during the first half of the colonial period. Well written, analyzed, and interpreted but more in the way of time lines, especially in the genealogical tables and discussion of encomendero families, would have been helpful.

1463. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. "Modelos peninsulares en la estratificación social del Ecuador," Europa e Iberoamérica: cinco siglos de intercambios: actas, IX Congreso Internacional de Historia de América (Sevilla: Asociación de Historiadores Latinoamericanos Europeos [AHILA]; Consejería de Cultura y Medio Ambiente [Junta de Andalucía], 1992), vol. 1, p. 99-105.

An outline of the Spanish model of social stratification that implicitly, if not inevitably, accompanied the Spaniards during the conquest of Quito and as it was subsequently implemented during the early colonial period.

1464. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. "El obraje colonial ecuatoriano: aproximación a su estudio," Revista de Indias, 37:149/150 (jul./dic. 1977), 471-541.

A major contribution to the economic history of the colonial period. Although not the first study of the textile industry based on Archivo General de Indias materials, it was the first professional study to utilize said sources and at the time of its publication, the most methodologically sophisticated. Reprinted in: Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 2:4 (1988), 63-142.

1465. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. "Obrajes y obrajeros del Quito colonial," Anuario de estudios americanos, 39 (1982), 341-365.

An insightful overview of textile manufacturing in the northern and central highlands. Textiles were the motor of the economy of the northern and central highlands from the 1540s through the 1700s.

1466. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. "Las ordenanzas de obrajes de Matías de Peralta para la Audiencia de Quito, 1621: régimen laboral de los centros textiles coloniales ecuatorianos," Anuario de estudios americanos, 33 (1976), 875-931.

Publishes and analyzes the 1621 ordenanzas de obrajes, a major source for the study of the history of textile labor.

1467. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Las instituciones y la administración de la Real Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1975. 296 p.

A college level text. Of some usefulness as a handbook. Reprinted in a so-called 2 ed.: Guayaquil: Editorial UG, 1988. 287 p.

1468. Pérez T., Aquiles R. Historia de la República del Ecuador. Quito: Impr. Romero, 1956. 214 p.

Notwithstanding the title, a survey of the colonial period. Notable because of the extensive archival research on which it is based.

1469. Pérez T., Aquiles R. Las mitas en la Real Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Impr. del Ministerio del Tesoro, 1947. 536 p.

The pioneering and nowadays the classic work on the forced labor system in Ecuador. Delineates and exemplifies the different kinds of mita to which indigenes were subject during the colonial period. Based on considerable original research, especially in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1987.

1470. Phelan, John Leddy. The Kingdom of Quito in the Seventeenth Century: Bureaucratic Politics in the Spanish Empire. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967. xvi, 432 p.

A pioneering study of the Antonio de Morga years (1615-1636). Although primarily concerned with political developments, The Kingdom of Quito includes several chapters on demographic and economic developments during the early colonial period. Also published in a Spanish version: El Reino de Quito en el siglo XVII: la política burocrática en el imperio español. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigación y Cultura, 1995. 531 p. (Colección histórica; vol. 20)

1471. Pimentel Carbo, Julio. Caminos y medios de transporte en nuestro 1er siglo colonial. [Guayaquil]: Comisión Permanente para la Defensa del Patrimonio Nacional, 1985. [35] p.

Contains some useful information.

1472. Ponce Leiva, Pilar. "Un espacio para la controversia: la Audiencia de Quito en el siglo XVIII," Revista de Indias, 52:195/196 (mayo/dic. 1992), 839-865.

A critical reexamination of the usual view, dating from coeval cries of decadence and despair, of the economy of the highlands as being in a state of crisis in the 1700s, and of the recent literature on the more or less concurrent economic boom of the coast. Ponce maintains that at worst the textile dependent economy of the northern and central highlands was in trouble, but that the economy of the more diversified southern highlands was holding its own, perhaps even growing.

1473. Powers, Karen Vieira. Indian Migration and Sociopolitical Change in the Audiencia of Quito. 1990. 509 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--New York University.

A revisionist study of the population history of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and an evaluation of the impact of migration on indigenous societies and of population movements on the socioeconomic development of the colony. Published in Spanish as: Prendas con pies: migraciones indígenas y supervivencia cultural en la Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1994. 429 p. See also item 5421.

1474. Powers, Karen Vieira. "Resilient Lords and Indian Vagabonds: Wealth, Migration, and the Reproductive Transformation of Quito's Chiefdoms, 1500-1700," Ethnohistory, 38:3 (Summer 1991), 225-249.

A study of the utilization of migrant Indians by ethnic lords to maintain their status and to enhance their wealth. Focuses on the Hatis of Latacunga. Also published in Spanish as: "Señores dinámicos e indios vagabundos: riqueza, migración y transformación reproductiva de los cacicazgos de Quito, 1500-1700," Memoria, MARKA, año 2, no. 2 (nov. 1991), 27-58.

1475. Pozo Alvarez, Gonzalo. Relieve de la patria: ensayo. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1957. 65 p.

Consists of miscellaneous, wholly unsupported, and frequently erroneous statements in leftist prose on the colonial and independence periods. Of no historiographical value whatsoever. Of interest only to students of history as (mis)perceived and of pseudo-Marxism.

1476. Primeras doctrinas en la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1570-1640, estudio preliminar y transcripción de las relaciones eclesiales y misionales de los siglos XVI y XVII [por] Hugo Burgos Guevara, 1ra ed. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1995. xliii, 488 p.

Publishes--mostly for the first time--31 "relaciones" ranging in time from 1552 through 1648, and in theme from the organization and staffing of the Diocese of Quito through the complaints of caciques, "indios principales," and pueblos regarding abuses of the clergy. A major set of primary materials not only for the history of the church in Ecuador but more importantly for the study of the interaction of conquerors and conquered and the persistence of autochthonous beliefs and practices during the early colonial period. Includes a solid introductory study by Burgos Guevara.

1477. Primicias de la cultura de Quito. Quito: [Impr.de] Raymundo Salazar, 1792. 7 nos. 56 p.

Ecuador's first periodical as well as the organ of the short lived Sociedad Patriótica de Amigos del País de Quito. Largely authored by Eugenio Espejo, the paper's editor. Reprinted by the Archivo Municipal de Quito in facsimile in 1947 (Publicaciones del Archivo Municipal; 23), and in modern typeface by the Museo de Arte e Historia in 1953 (Publicaciones del Museo Municipal de Arte e Historia; 29). Both reprints include the Instrucción previa sobre el papel periódico, intitulado Primicias de la cultura de Quito (Quito:[Impr.de] Raymundo Salazar, 1791; [5] p.) and the separately paginated Suplemento al papel periódico: Primicias de la cultura de Quito del día 5 de enero de 1792 (11 p.).

1478. Quintero, Rafael. "El estado colonial," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 5, p. 7-56.

A thoughtful and thought provoking review of the economic, political, and social structures of the Presidency of Quito.

1479. Ramos Gómez, Luis J. "La acusación contra el Presidente electo Dn. José de Araujo y Río, sobre la introducción de mercancías ilícitas a su llegada a Quito en diciembre de 1736," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 72:163/154 (1989), 249-272.

Examines the undoubtedly true charges that President elect Araujo introduced merchandise illicitly prior to and upon taking office. Perhaps the only novelty in the charges is the amount and "blatancy" of the traffic. Inasmuch as Araujo "donated" 26,000 pesos--probably borrowed--to obtain the office, he needed to recover his investment.

1480. Ramos Gómez, Luis J. "El 'bien común' como pretexto del Presidente José de Araujo para crear una compañía de soldados y prohibir el aguardiente de caña en Quito en 1737," Revista andina, 11:22 (dic. 1993), 381-402.

President Araujo established a company of soldiers not only for his protection and that of his spouse but to enforce the prohibition of the distillation and sale of sugar cane aguardiente. Ramos Gómez agrees with Araujo's detractors that the President was less concerned with the public good than he was in lining Victorino Montero's and indirectly his own pockets. Brother-in-law Victorino was the local distributer of grape aguardiente.

1481. Ramos Gómez, Luis J. "Dos pareceres sobre el salario de los mitayos de Quito en 1735: el informe a la Audiencia de Martínez de Arizala, visitador de Cuenca, y el parecer del fiscal Luján," Histórica, 20:2 (dic. 1996), 271-283.

A well researched article on the divergent views of two members of the Audiencia regarding the salary to be paid and treatment accorded mitayos. Understandably the proposals of Luján, the protector de naturales, were more favorable to mitayos than those of Martínez de Arizala, who sided with the local elite, but they were based on ordinances written for the Perus that had little or nothing to do with the realities of Quito.

1482. Ramos Gómez, Luis J. "Un ejemplo de la lucha por el poder en Quito," Cultura, 8:24a (ene./abr. 1986), 117-132.

Examines the 1737 struggle between the president of the Audiencia and the Cabildo over who should serve as alcaldes ordinarios de primer y segundo voto. At issue was who would control the city's government, Araujo and his allies or those members of the local elite who opposed him.

1483. Ramos Gómez, Luis J. "La estructura social quiteña entre 1737 y 1745 según el proceso contra José de Araujo," Revista de Indias, 51:191 (ene./abr. 1991), 25-56.

Examines shifting alliances and fortunes of prominent members of the elite as revealed by analysis of proceedings against Araujo.

1484. Ramos Gómez, Luis J. "La pugna por el poder local en Quito entre 1737 y 1745 según el proceso contra el Presidente de la Audiencia José de Araujo y Río," Revista complutense de historia de América, 18 (1992), 179-196.

Discusses the documents that provided the basis for the allegations of bribery and corruption brought against Araujo y Río by Juan de Valpardo and his supporters.

1485. Ramos Pérez, Demetrio. "El cambio de las mentalidades sociales en Quito en la época del despotismo ilustrado," Jahrbuch für Geschichte von Staat, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Lateinamerikas, 26 (1989), 85-111.

A somewhat rambling and not altogether convincing attempt to demonstrate that the mentality of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was moralistic and humane whereas that of the eighteenth was pragmatic and utilitarian. Also published in: Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 72:153/154 (1989), 57-83.

1486. "Real cédula de 31 de diciembre de 1704 e información respecto a su cumplimiento en relación con 'que cesase enteramente el entero y servicio de la mita, en los obrajes de esa provincia, que manteniendose estos, se compusiese el trabajo de ellos, de solo indios voluntarios, etc., etc.'," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 5:7/8 (ene./jun. 1959), 37-46.

1487. Recopilación de documentos oficiales de la época colonial: con un apéndice relativo a la independencia de Guayaquil y a las batallas de Pichincha, Junín, Ayacucho y Tarquí, [editada por Cornelio Escipión Vernaza]. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, 1979. xii, 335 p.

A photofacsimile reprint; originally published: Guayaquil, 1894. Still useful, notwithstanding defects of transcription.

1488. Reig Satorres, José. "Cabildo," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 5:10 (dic. 1976), 9-24.

1489. Reig Satorres, José. "Medios de socorrer y fomentar el Reyno de Quito y sus vasallos," Anuario histórico jurídico ecuatoriano, 6 (1981), 647-714.

Publishes with a substantial introductory essay the late eighteenth-century "Expediente sobre los medios de socorrer, y fomentar el Reyno de Quito ...," an important source on the state of the colony and coeval thought on how to grow the economy.

1490. Reig Satorres, José. "Precisiones sobre la Audiencia y la Presidencia de Quito," Revista chilena de historia del derecho, 11 (1985), 377-403.

Distinguishes between the Audiencia and the Presidency of Quito. The two entities overlapped jurisdictionally but were not synonymous territorially as has been maintained by some Ecuadorian scholars and at least one Spanish jurist (see item 1500). The failure to distinguish between audiencia and presidency has resulted in a number of misinterpretations regarding administrative developments of the colonial period as well as questions of authority.

1491. Reig Satorres, José. "Reales audiencias," Autos acordados de la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1578-1722 (item1350), p. 525-614.

1492. Relaciones geográficas de la Nueva Granada (siglos XVI a XIX), recopilación, selección, proemio, notas y edición de Víctor Manuel Patiño. Cali: Impr. Departamental, 1983. 556 p.

Presumably important for the study of what is now northern Ecuador and southern Colombia. Unfortunately, I have not been able to see this item as it appears to be held, at least in the United States and Canada, only by the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Hawaii at Manoa Libraries, neither one of which would lend it.

1493. Relaciones geográficas de la Presidencia de Quito, 1776-1815, transcripción de Nadia Flores de Núñez; notas de explicación, Alfredo Costales y Juan Freile Granizo. Quito: Mundo Shuar, 1978. 155 p.

Publishes nine late colonial period descriptions of the Upper Amazon Basin, including territory of the Bracamoros, Xíbaro (i.e., Shuar and Achuar), and Quijos peoples. Bulk of information concerns inroads of extractive economy, notably "canela" and quinine. The originals are in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. Also published as: Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 14:20 (sept. 1976)

1494. Relaciones histórico-geográficas de la Audiencia de Quito: s. XVI-XIX, edición, estudio introductorio y transcripción por Pilar Ponce Leiva. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Centro de Estudios Históricos, Departamento de Historia de América, 1991-1992. 2 v.

Consists of 62 previously published but newly transcribed for the most part and 35 previously unpublished relaciones geográficas of the Audiencia of Quito. Major compendium of basic sources for reconstruction of demographic history, ethnohistory, local and regional, and socioeconomic history of the colonial period. Indexed. There is also an Ecuadorian edition: Quito: MARKA, Instituto de Historia y Antropología Andina; Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1992-1994. 2 v.

1495. Rengel Valdivieso, Jorge Hugo. "La familia ecuatoriana en la colonia," Memoria del primer Congreso de Sociología Ecuatoriana (item 8315), t. 2, p. 131-145.

A legal approach of limited validity. Based on ideals or norms as expressed in the Recopilación de leyes de los reynos de las Indias. Does not even broach the question of the application of said ideals or norms, let alone "deviations" or "violations" thereof.

1496. Revelo, Luis Alberto. "El estanco de aguardiente a finales del período colonial (1765-1822)," Quitumbe, 8 (jun. 1994), 141-156.

A student paper on the cane liquor monopoly. Includes archival data.

1497. Rodríguez Fernández, Francisco. "Ideario de don Francisco Rodríguez Fernández, párroco criollo en los Andes (1696)," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 2:3 (1988), 145-241.

Reprint; originally published: Anuario de estudios americanos, 17 (1960), 301-406. Extracts with interspersed commenary by Juan Pérez de Tudela Bueso from an extensive treatise (El pecado original: exhortación previa a los reinos de las Indias, sobre el lamentable estado a que los va reduciendo su culpa original con la serpiente enemiga [282 folios]) by the cura doctrinero of Ticsán in the Corregimiento of Cuenca on the lamentable state not just of his flock, but of native Andeans throughout the highlands in the late 1600s. An exceptionally important source.

1498. Rueda Novoa, Rocío. "La ruta a la Mar del Sur: un proyecto de las élites serranas en Esmeraldas (s. XVIII)," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 3 (segundo semestre 1992), 33-54.

Adds some new data to attempts of Quito to open an alternative route to the coast via the Province of Esmeraldas. Especially concerned with the Barón de Carondelet's Malbucho project.

1499. Salomon, Frank. "The Fury of Andrés Arévalo: Disease Bundles of a Colonial Andean Shaman," Political Anthropology of Ecuador (item 7956), p. 83-105.

Regarding the witchcraft allegedly practiced by a traditional healer in the early eighteenth century in the pueblo of Paccha near Zaruma. Also published in Spanish as: "La furia de Andrés Arévalo: envoltorio de enfermedades de un shaman andino colonial" in Antropología política en el Ecuador, p. 115-137.

1500. Salomon, Frank. "Shamanism and Politics in Late Colonial Ecuador," American Ethnologist, 10:3 (Aug. 1983), 413-428.

Examines four trials of native brujos between 1703 and 1786. Demonstrates that the judicial system could be manipulated by shamans. The conflicts they exploited were specifically economic (e.g., expansion of cattle-ranching into native zones), but the Spanish authorities prosecuted on demonological, not political, grounds, and in so doing, strengthened the shamans's prestige and power. Also published in Spanish as: "Shamanismo y política en la última época colonial del Ecuador," Cultura, 7:21a (ene./abr. 1985), 487-509.

1501. Sánchez Bella, Ismael. "Quito, audiencia subordinada," Anuario histórico jurídico ecuatoriano, 5 (1980), 1-46.

A study of how the subordination of the Audiencia of Quito to the viceroy of Peru functioned in theory and in practice.

1502. Sánchez Villavicencio, Dora; and Luis Torres Calderón. Formación económico-social precapitalista del Ecuador (etapa colonial) Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, 1982. 62 p.

The authors's thesis in Economics. Adds nothing whatsoever to the elucidation of economic and social developments and events of the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth centuries. As good an example as any, however, of the misapplication of Marxism and the so-called "scientific" approach to past by some national scholars. N.B. It is not the application of "la concepción materialista de la historia" to which I object, but the fact that Sánchez Villavicencio and Torres Calderón appear to be inadequately grounded in historical materialism and obvious from the paucity of their bibliographic references that they are less than adequately steeped in knowledge and interpretations of the colonial period of their own country. Yet Sánchez Villavicencio and Torres Calderón are probably representative of the majority of Marxist academicians and scholars in Ecuador, at least as of the late twentieth century.

1503. Santillán, Hernando de. "Carta dirigida por el primer presidente de la Real Audiencia de Quito, el licenciado Hernando de Santillán, al rey don Felipe II," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 37:89 (ene./jun. 1957), 109-111.

A 1570 recapitulation of Santillán's accomplishments as the first President of Quito. Published with a brief note by Carlos Manuel Larrea.

1504. Silva, Rafael Euclides. "Estructura jurídico-administrativa de la Audiencia de Quito en el ocaso del imperio español," Anuario histórico jurídico ecuatoriano, 6 (1981), 207-237.

A solid introduction to the administrative structure of the colony.

1505. Silva, Rafael Euclides. "Hacienda pública del Reino de Quito," Revista del Colegio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte, 17:52 (1940), 66-71.

1506. Simposio por los 250 años de la Misión Científica Franco-Española a la América Ecuatorial (1986: Quito, Ecuador). Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 72:153/154 (1989), 4-405; 73:155/156 (1990), 9-211.

Publishes the proceedings of the symposium held in Quito 7-12 July 1986 on the Earth Measuring Expedition of 1736. Only those ponencias having something original to say are listed separately here within.

1507. "Sobre el camino de Ibarra a Esmeraldas," [versión de] Carlos Manuel Larrea, Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 35:86 (jul./dic. 1955), 265-266.

Additional sources on the road to Esmeraldas.

1508. Super, John C. "Partnership and Profit in the Early Andean Trade: The Experiences of Quito Merchants, 1580-1610," Journal of Latin American Studies, 11:2 (Nov. 1979), 265-281.

A pioneering study of early colonial merchants of Quito. Based on notrarial records in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. Also published in Spanish as: "Empresarios quiteños en 1580-1620," Revista del Archivo Histórico del Guayas, 8:16 (dic. 1979), 5-20; and as: "Compañías y utilidades en el comercio andino temprano: la práctica de los comerciantes de Quito, 1580-1610," Revista ecuatoriana de historia económica, 1:1 (primer semestre 1987), 59-79.

1509. Szászdi, Istvan. "El indio en la Diócesis de Quito hasta el sínodo de 1570," Cuadernos prehispánicos, 8 (1980), 139-170.

Although this article includes some ethnographic data from the acts of the 1570 synod, it consists mostly of praise for Archbishop Pedro de la Peña.

1510. Terán Najas, Rosemarie. "Censos, capellanías y élites: aspectos sociales del crédito en Quito colonial (primera mitad del siglo XVIII)," Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 1 (1991), 23-48.

Studies utilization of loans from ecclesiastical entities and endowments of chaplaincies as vehicles of credit by elite of the capital during the first half of the 1700s. Also examines social aspects thereof. A well researched, novel contribution.

1511. Terán Najas, Rosemarie. Los proyectos del imperio borbónico en la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1 ed. Quito: Abya-Yala; Taller de Estudios Históricos, 1988. 114 p.

An original tesis de maestría on administrative reforms attempted as well as implemented by the Bourbons in the Audiencia of Quito. See also item 1512.

1512. Terán Najas, Rosemarie. "Los rasgos de la configuración social en la Audiencia de Quito," Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 11-19.

An overview of the social structure and change of the colony from the Spanish conquest through the eve of independence. Especially concerned with the "Los mestizos en la sociedad colonial," to whom the entire issue is devoted (see also items 1369, 1390, 1396, and 1530).

1513. Terán Najas, Rosemarie. "Sinopsis histórica del siglo XVIII," Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 261-300.

A revisionist account by an upcoming Ecuadorian historian of political and economic developments of the eighteenth century, especially of the selective implementation of the Bourbon reforms in the Audiencia of Quito and of their impact. See also item 1510.

1514. Terán Najas, Rosemarie; and María Elena Porras P. "Las cofradías seráficas: estudios de casos," Quitumbe, 8 (jun. 1994), 57-69.

A student paper on Franciscan sponsored brotherhoods throughout the Presidency. Important because it is based on research in the Archivo General de la Orden Franciscana in Quito.

1515. Tisnés J., Roberto María. "Don Juan de la Cruz Mourgeón: 35 presidente de la Presidencia de Quito," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 50:110 (jul./dic. 1967), 164-181.

De la Cruz was the penultimate president of Quito (24 Dec. 1820-8 Apr. 1822)

1516. Tisnés J., Roberto María. "Eclesiásticos y autoridades en la colonia," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:115 (ene./jun. 1970), 123-127.

Research notes regarding a quarrel between the President of the Audiencia and a diocesan priest. The Barón de Carondelet charged Father Mariano Enríquez with libel and slander and had him arrested.

1517. Tisnés J., Roberto María. Movimientos pre-independientes gran colombianos. Bogotá: Edit. e Impr. Salesianas, 1963. 351 p.

On "precursor" movements and tendencies in what would become Ecuador, see p. 293-330. Extensively researched and well documented.

1518. Tobar Donoso, Julio. "Aspectos jurídicos de la ereción de la Audiencia de Quito," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 45:102 (jul./dic. 1963), 174-192.

Primarily of interest to students of institutions.

1519. Tobar Donoso, Julio. Las instituciones del período hispánico, especialmente en la Presidencia de Quito. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1974. 479 p.

A vade mecum on the institutions and institutional history of the colonial period.

1520. Tobar Donoso, Julio. "El restablecimiento de la Audiencia de Quito," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 19:55 (ene./jun. 1940), 5-12.

Maintains that González Suárez and those who have parroted him were incorrect in asserting that the Audiencia of Quito was suppressed for a total of six years (1717-1722) during the initial annexation of the Presidency to the new Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada. Tobar argues instead, through documentary evidence, that the Audiencia was suppressed on 28 Oct. 1718, upon the realization of the transfer of judicial as well as administrative functions to Santafé de Bogotá, only to be reestablished by royal decree of 18 Feb. 1720, the latter of which was not effectuated, however, until 26 March 1722.

1521. Valencia, Pedro de. Relaciones de Indias. I. Nueva Granada y Virreinato de Perú, estudios introductorios y notas históricas por Jesús Paniagua Pérez; edición crítica por Francisco Javier y Jesús Fuente Fernández. León: Secretariado de Publicaciones de la Universidad de León, 1993. 519 p.

Additional research has revealed that the well known relaciones geográficas of the early seventeenth century were compiled by Pedro de Valencia (1555-1620), in 1607 and 1608, utilizing the responses received to the 1604 questionnaire prepared by him. This vol. consists of new transcriptions replete with explanatory notes, based on manuscript originals in the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, of: "Los Quijos"; "Panamá"; "Portobelo"; "Tunja"; "Nuestra Señora de Leiva"; "Villar Don Pardo"; "Los Pueblos de la villa de el Villar Don Pardo"; "Guayaquil y Portoviejo"; "Jaén de Bracamoros"; "Relación de San Leandro de Jaén, Baeza y Guayaquil"; and "Santiago de la Frontera y su distrito."

1522. Valencia Sala, Gladys. "El mayorazgo en la Audiencia de Quito," Quitumbe, 8 (jun. 1994), 107-125.

A précis of author's original thesis on entailed estates (item 1522).

1523. Valencia Sala, Gladys. El mayorazgo en la Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1994. 133 p.

The author's master's thesis. Based on research in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. Exemplifies institutionalization of entitled estates through a study of the properties of the Sánchez de Orellana or marqueses de Solanda.

1524. Vargas, José María. "Audiencia de Quito: residencias y visitas del siglo XVI," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:125 (ene./jun. 1975), 5-17; 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 52-61.

A brief review of judicial reviews of the early seventeenth century (i.e., through the administration of President Morga [1614-1636]).

1525. Vargas, José María. "Los cacicazgos," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:116 (jul./dic. 1970), 250-264.

Consists of miscellaneous research notes.

1526. Vargas, José María. "Creación de la Real Audiencia de Quito: su valor histórico," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 45:102 (jul./dic. 1963), 193-201.

A utilitarian essay inasmuch as it delineates the cities and towns in the Governorships of Popayán and Quito that were included in the new audiencia.

1527. Vargas, José María. Don Hernando de Santillán y la fundación de la Real Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1963. 173 p.

A well documented study of the first president of the Audiencia of Quito and of the establishment of the audiencia.

1528. Vargas, José María. La economia política del Ecuador durante la colonia. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Corporación Editora Nacional, [1981]. 366 p. (Biblioteca básica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 15)

Reprint; originally published: Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1957. xvi, 322 p. The reprint includes an "Estudio introductorio" by Carlos Marchán Romero (p. 13-58). The first and as of July 1997, still almost the only economic history of the entire colonial period. The only exception was item 687.

1529. Vargas, José María. Historia del Ecuador, siglo XVI. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1977. 344 p.

As of July 1997, items 1528 and 1529 constituted the most detailed study of the first half of the colonial period since González Suárez's Historia general de la República del Ecuador (item 1388). Quasi-modern in approach inasmuch as Father Vargas includes some coverage of economic and social as well as cultural developments. Based on several decades of research and reflection. Nonetheless, these two items are chronicles, however modern, primarily of the city of Quito and the north-central highlands, rather than true histories of the entire colony.

1530. Vargas, José María. Historia del Ecuador, siglo XVII. Quito: Editora Royal, [1979]. 296 p.

Continues item 1529.

1531. Vela, María Susana. "Mulato 'conocido y reputado por tal'," Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 77-88.

A student paper on racial passing during the late colonial period. Interestingly enough "mulattoes" found it legally and socially advantageous to petition to be recognized as "mestizos." Based on archival research.

1532. Velasco, Juan de. Historia del Reino de Quito en la América Meridional. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1977-1979. 3 v.

One of the only two scholarly acceptable and apparently textually accurate versions (as of July 1997) of this classic, late eighteenth-century history of pre-Hispanic and colonial Ecuador by Quito's most famous Jesuit expulso. The other is the edition prepared by Espinosa Pólit for the Biblioteca ecuatoriana mínima, (item 541). The Casa de la Cultura version was prepared from one of the two known manuscript originals, the one in the Real Academia de la Historia in Madrid, whereas Espinosa Pólit worked from the coeval copy now held by the Biblioteca Ecuatoriana "Aurelio Espinosa Pólit." There is yet another "modern" edition, but it does not include the "Historia natural": Caracas: Biblioteca Ayacucho, 1981. Edición. prólogo, notas y cronología, Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco.

1533. Velasco Abad, Fernando. "La estructura económica de la Real Audiencia de Quito: notas para su análisis," Ecuador pasado y presente (item 572), p. 61-110.

A refreshingly novel essay for its time. Velasco Abad attempted to analyze the economic structure of the colonial period in accordance with its internal realities and its role within the economy of the Spanish empire at large. Also he recognized that the Spanish sector of the economy of the Kingdom of Quito was at least quasi-capitalistic.

1534. Velasco y Unda, Ignacio de. "El terremoto de 1797," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 47:104 (jul./dic. 1964), 228-242.

A detailed account of the earthquake of Feb. 4, 1797, by Josep M. Barnadas, who reproduces the request for information on the disaster submitted by Velasco y Unda, the procurator of the Cabildo of Riobamba, to the Corregidor of Riobamba. Hence the confusion on the part of the editors of the Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia as to the authorship of this piece. Includes a documentary appendix.

1535. Villalba F., Jorge. El licenciado Miguel de Ibarra: sexto presidente de la Audiencia de Quito, su gobernador y capitán general, 1550-1608. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 1991. 442 p.

An in-depth study of Ecuador in the early 1600s as well as of the administration of the sixth president of the Audiencia. Well researched but poorly proofed.

1536. Villalba F., Jorge. "Los obrajes de Quito en el siglo XVII y la legislación obrera," Revista del Instituto de Historia Eclesiástica Ecuatoriana, 8 (1986), 43-212.

A data rich study on the trade in as well as manufacture of textile and on the various attempts by viceroys, presidents, and oidores to mitigate the abuse of Indian labor in the 1600s.

1537. Villalengua, Juan Josef. "Relación exacta y circunstanciada de todos los empleos políticos de Real Hacienda y militares que hay en la ciudad de Quito y toda su provincia ..." (29 marzo 1790), Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 4:6 (ene./dic. 1956), 64-108; 5:7/8 (ene./jun. 1959), 6-36.

An audiencia wide register of royal and local bureaucrats as of 1790. Includes a muster of the military.

1538. Villegas, Juan. Negros y mulatos esclavos: Audiencia de Quito. Montevideo: Centro de Estudios de Historia Americana, 1992. 25 leaves.

Consists of research notes. Mimeographed.

1539. "La Visita de García de León y Pizarro a la Audiencia de Quito: (aporte documental)," [con una nota introductoria por] Eduardo Martiré, Anuario histórico jurídico ecuatoriano, 6 (1980), 323-344.

Publishes with an introduction the 7 Dec. 1782 "Resolución adoptada por la corona acera de las medidas tomadas en la visita a la Audiencia de Quito por el Regente y Visitador General don José García de León y Pizarro."

1540. Vivanco, Carlos A. "Anotaciones para los cacicazgos ecuatorianos," Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 22:59 (ene./jun. 1942), 119-152.

1541. Vivanco, Carlos A. "La Real Audiencia de Quito en el siglo XVI," Boletín del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 1:1 (ene./jun. 1950), 7-21.

1542. Washburn, Douglas A. The Bourbon Reforms: A Social and Economic History of the Audiencia of Quito, 1760-1810. 1984. xi, 281 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Texas at Austin.

At the time of its presentation as well as in retrospect Washburn's doctoral dissertation was important only for some of the data, especially demographic and fiscal, it contains. Washburn displays an inadequate grasp of the literature, including such critical studies as those by Rosemary D.F. Bromley, Nicholas P. Cushner, and Javier Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, on the late colonial period and of altogether too many important works on the 10 de agosto, and a tendency to wring far too much from the data. His analysis and interpretation of demographic, economic, social, and political events and developments in Quito per se and the north-central highlands are not only overdrawn but frequently erroneous in light of what was known as well as unknown as of the early 1980s. His discussions of the characteristics of the elite, the sales tax "rebellion" of 1765, and the abortive rebellion of lords and lawyers of 1809 and Quito's subsequent attempt to establish independence in 1810-1812 are especially weak and poorly nuanced. Also it should be noted that although Washburn has something to say, sometimes of significance, about what was happening in Cuenca and Guayaquil and their districts during the late colonial period, "The Bourbon Reforms" is primarily about the city of Quito and its district.

1543. Wenzel, Karl-Heinz. Wandel in der Landwirtschaft bei den Indianern in der Audiencia de Quito im 16. Jahrhundert. Bonn: Holos, 1987. 162 p.

A master's thesis on the takeover of ayllu or community lands in the 1500s by Spaniards and caciques. Done at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat in Bonn.

1544. Wolf, Teodoro. Crónica de los fenómenos volcánicos y terremotos en el Ecuador: con algunas noticias sobre otros países de la América Central y Meridional, desde 1533 a 1797. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad Central, 1904. 120 p.

Reprint; originally published: Quito: Impr. Municipal, 1873. Also reprinted in: Anales de la Universidad Central, 19:132 (oct. 1903), 26-40; 19:133 (nov. 1903), 78-99; 19:134 (dic. 1903), 37-177; 19:135 (ene. 1905), 223-264. A basic reference work.

1545. Zúñiga, Neptalí. "El camino de Quito a Tierra Firme," Revista de Indias, 9:33/34 (jul./dic. 1948), 891-948.

A comprehensive, well researched review of the several efforts of Quito to open a road to Esmeraldas with emphasis on Maldonado's project. See also item 3701.