Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador: Introducción

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA

DEL

ECUADOR

por

Michael T. Hamerly

INTRODUCCION

The last bibliographic guide to Ecuadorian historiography was published in 1978 (entry 150). Since then a veritable explosion of library materials on the history of Ecuador has occurred. Literally thousands of new books, articles, and doctoral dissertations in the Humanities and Social Sciences, relating to the past of Ecuador in one way or another, have appeared and continue to appear. Yet coverage of these materials in specialized as well as in standard abstracts, bibliographies, and indexes has been less than satisfactory. In this regard it cannot be overemphasized that Ecuador is one of those countries for and in which bibliographic control had yet to be achieved as of the late 1990s, and, I suspect, still remains to be achieved.

Concurrent with the explosion of publications has been the internationalization of Ecuadorian studies. Although there had always been some interest in Ecuador elsewhere in the world, there did not used to be more than a few Ecuadorianists. The relative neglect of Ecuadorian studies outside of Ecuador, however, began to be rectified in the 1970s. By the 1990s, there were dozens of professionally trained scholars, in the Humanities and Social Sciences, in the United States and Canada, in France, Germany, Great Britain, Spain, elsewhere in Europe, and in other Latin American countries, actively engaged in research and publishing on a wide variety of topics having to do with Ecuador.

The explosion of interest in Ecuador elsewhere in the world has contributed to the increase in the quality as well as to the quantity of work being done on the country. The internationalization of Ecuadorian studies is not without its downside, however. On the one hand, some of the work being done appears in little known or obscure venues. On the other, some of the publications in question never appear in other languages or are not translated and republished in Spanish--the one language we should all have in common--until years, sometimes decades, later. Therefore it has become increasingly more difficult to stay abreast of the literature, and it has long since become necessary for Ecuadorianists to cope with materials in several languages--at least English, French, and German in addition to Spanish--in order to remain current in their respective fields.

Heretofore there were only two comprehensive attempts to register historical production on Ecuador from pre-Hispanic times through the "present": Carlos Manuel Larrea's Bibliografía científica del Ecuador (Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1948-1953, 5 v. [entry 110]; 2 ed.: Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispánica, 1952, 5 v. in 1 [entry 111]); and Robert E. Norris's Guía bibliográfica para el estudio de la historia ecuatoriana (Austin: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas at Austin, 1978 [entry 150]). Both were pioneering works.

Larrea's Bibliografía científica was the first comprehensive register of ecuatoriana, not just of Ecuadorian historiography. Furthermore, it was also the most comprehensive bibliography of ecuatoriana until 1989, when it began to be supplanted but not altogether superseded by the Diccionario bibliográfico ecuatoriano (entry 26). The 1 ed. of Larrea's Bibliografía científica listed 8,732 books and articles in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Sciences published through 1946. The 2 ed. added 568 items, raising the total to 9,300, and advanced coverage through 1949.

Discipline specific, Norris's Guía bibliográfica updated and surpassed Larrea's Bibliografía científica insofar as historical materials per se are concerned. Norris described 3,577 books, pamphlets, articles, theses, and miscellaneous manuscripts, including some older works that did not appear in Larrea's Bibliografía científica. Norris also annotated some entries and added author and subject indexes, making his Guía bibliográfica more useful and easier to use than Larrea's Bibliografía científica.

Although they will never be "out-of-date," Larrea's Bibliografía científica and Norris's Guía bibliográfica inevitably became dated. They also suffer from errors of omission and commission. As already noted, Larrea's Bibliografía científica stops with 1946 or 1949 imprints, depending upon the edition consulted. (Even though Larrea began to publish a "3 ed." [entry 112], the new edition was limited to anthropological, archaeological, and linguistic materials.) The major problems with Larrea's Bibliografía científica are: he did not record publishers or printers; and in the case of books, he did not always specify the number of pages--oversights he rectified to some extent in the "3 ed." Furthermore, Larrea did not index his work. Nonetheless, his bare bones entries appear to be correct for the most part.

Norris's Guía bibliográfica advanced coverage of historical and related publications through the mid 1970s--he did not specify a cutoff year--but Norris violated one of the basic canons of research. Apparently he relied extensively on secondhand records, the specifics of which he does not seem to have checked against the actual publications. I do not know how else Norris could have made so many mistakes. He misattributed authorship in some cases; he garbled some titles; and in far too many instances, he failed to give complete publication data or pagination, especially in the case of articles. Furthermore, Norris included some manuscripts, without specifying where they may be seen, and some imprints that have nothing whatsoever to do with Ecuador but with Equatorial Africa.

It is important to note, however, that Larrea and Norris did not have at their disposal the bibliographic tools that subsequently came into existence, especially computerized databases. Moreover, there is nothing wrong with the scissors-and-paste approach to the compilation of a working bibliography. The different disciplines disagree as to how to cite, however, and what to include in a citation. Furthermore, even the most punctilious scholars and librarians make mistakes. Therefore, it behooves bibliographers to verify citations and catalog records against the particulars of the actual publications, if at all possible. Not to do so is to run the risk of perpetuating not just cryptic but erroneous citations.

I too have relied on the work of others, especially on Larrea and Norris, but I have endeavored to check every brief or suspect record against either the actual book, article, or dissertation, or against as many other, discrete records of the work in question as needed to flesh out or correct descriptions and to assign descriptors. In brief, I have tried to lay to rest as many phantoms of opus as possible without creating any new ones. Inevitably, therefore, several hundred references, including some that correspond to important works, have had to be excluded.

Two examples of what is meant by bibliographic ghosts are: German Colmenares's "Fundamentos económicos y sociales de una diferenciación nacional: el caso de la hacienda serrana en el Ecuador, 1800-1810," Historia y espacio: revista de estudios regionales del Departamento de Historia de la Universidad del Valle, 2:6/7 (1980); and John Isaacson, Holguer Jara, and Frank Salomon's, Tulipe: centro ceremonial del noroccidente de Pichincha (Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1986). I have been unable to verify the article by Colmenares. Colmenares himself nowhere refers to it in his 1992 "La hacienda en la sierra norte del Ecuador" (entry 6115), and it is not referenced in Marco Antonio Peñaloza Bretel's 1995 "La investigación historiográfica sobre la hacienda serrana ecuatoriana del s. XIX" (entry 270).

As for the Isaacson, Jara, and Salomon work, it does exist, but apparently only in manuscript. Notwithstanding the reference to Tulipe in various monographs, Salomon himself assured me that the book in question was not published. Undoubtedly that it is why it did not show up in any online public access catalog or in the Banco Central del Ecuador's catalog of its own publications. (Salomon's contribution to Tulipe, however, was finally published as a separate in 1997 by Abya-Yala--not by the Banco Central--as: Los Yumbos, Niguas y Tsatchila o "Colorados" durante la colonia española: etnohistoria del noroccidente de Pichincha, Ecuador [131 p.].)

Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador lists more than 8,814 books (including compendia of sources), articles in periodicals or in anthologies, and doctoral dissertations that have been published or are available through University Microfilms International. The reason for fudging as to the actual number of items included is because some entries correspond to several versions of the same work or to entries with analytics. Some entries, for example, describe the latest edition or reprint of a particular work with as many of the bibliographic particulars of earlier editions or of the original version that I was able to ascertain and considered important enough to detail in a note. Furthermore, I could not resist the temptation to add some titles in the introductory remarks to the various sections that comprise this bibliography. I also plead guilty to having included references to yet other works in some notes, sometimes by the same author(s), sometimes by another author or other authors, that I was unable to list separately, at least not without having to engage in extensive re-enumeration.

Generally speaking, the cutoff date of publication for inclusion in this bibliography is December, 1995. Nonetheless, some 1996 and 1997 imprints appear here, the database not having been closed until July 1997. I have been more liberal than Norris in coverage, but less encompassing than Larrea. Whereas Norris gave short shrift to the "pre-conquest" period, I consider that which may be called the "pre-Hispanic" period as important as any other and treat it accordingly. The past after all does not begin with the written word. On the other hand, only those Science publications and doctoral dissertations that have to do with the history of scientific expeditions to Ecuador or with the history of scientific developments and events in Ecuador have been included. In other words, unlike Larrea, I have excluded most works relating to the natural history of Ecuador. Basic or "core"--in the Library Science sense of the word--publications on climate, flora and fauna, and geology, however, have been included.

Many works that are not readily available in Ecuador or elsewhere in Latin America appear here. By the same token many works that are not generally available, if at all, in North America or European libraries are also described. But the lack of access to any given work has nothing whatsoever to do with its importance. Every book or article that appeared to me to be significant has been listed regardless of its availability or, for that matter, the language in which it appears, or its "age," provided I was able to verify its bibliographic particulars and to ascertain the gist of its contents. However, only doctoral dissertations that are readily available are included. At the same time, I have included some works that are not important and never were in an effort to provide as complete a historical bibliography of Ecuador as possible.

In a bibliography of this magnitude it is inevitable that some anomalies should have crept in. I hope that I caught them all and send them on their way, but I cannot be certain. Be that as it may, entries 2384, 3380, 3395, 5284, 6295, 6358, 7086, 7136, 7660, and 8304 were eliminated because they turned out to be redundancies or citations whose particulars I could not flesh out.

Volume one of Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador opens with "Bibliografías" (entries 1-200), followed by sections on "Estudios historiográficos y relacionados" (entries 201-297), "Ayudas de investigación" (entries 298-441), and "Revistas" (entries 442-525). These four sections are complementary, not altogether discrete, and as comprehensive as I could make them in order to facilitate the task of other Ecuadorianists. "Bibliografías" includes every bibliography of ecuatoriana in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Natural Sciences for which I was able to find or to establish a satisfactory description. "Estudios historiográficos" includes materials having to do with the study and teaching of the Social Sciences as well as historiographical studies per se. Only a few books and articles on the study and teaching of the Humanities appear because there do not seem to be more than a handful. Apparently this is because the Humanities, with the notable exception of Literature, did not attract nearly as much attention in Ecuador as History and the Social Sciences during the closing decades of the twentieth century.

"Ayudas de investigación" consists primarily of guides to and studies of archives, libraries, museums, and private collections in Ecuador and repositories located elsewhere in the world that have materials on Ecuador. The "Revistas" section lists every historical and related periodical for which I have been able to find or establish an acceptable bibliographic description (that is to say, a description that includes enumeration, place of publication, and dates of issuance and publication). N.B. With one or two exceptions, serials that are primarily bibliographic or statistical in coverage, however, are entered under "Bibliografías" or "Estadística."

Works having to do with Ecuador in general or with the history of Ecuador at large are described next, under "Historia: obras generales y misceláneas" (entries 526-658), followed by works on the "Período prehispánico" (entries 659-1305). "Período prehispánico" lists studies having to do with the archaeology, physical anthropology, and ethnohistory of Ecuador prior to the Spanish conquest. This section also includes some works on the "prehistory" of the country or its component regions. Inevitably the ethnohistorical studies listed in this section also examine the Spanish conquest and the early colonial period to some extent and therefore will be of interest to students of the "Período hispánico" too. Appropriate subject headings such as "Ecuador -- Historia -- Conquista española" and "Ecuador -- Historia -- Siglo XVI" will guide those readers who do not wish to plow through the "Período prehispánico" section to the pertinent books, articles, and dissertations.

The remainder of volume one is given over to the "Período hispánico," and the "Período Nacional." The "Período hispánico" is divided into "La conquista española y las guerras civiles" (entries 1306-1341) and "La colonia" (entries 1342-1545). The section on the Spanish conquest is meager because the conquest of what would become Ecuador has been overshadowed by the conquest of the Tahuantinsuyu at large and because I chose not to include the majority of the general accounts and coeval chronicles inasmuch as several excellent guides thereof and thereto already exist.

The "Período Nacional" is divided into "La independencia y bajo la Gran Colombia (1809-1830)" (entries 1546-1897), "La República (1830-)" (entries 1898-1994), "Siglo XIX (1830-1895)" (entries 1995-2213), and "Siglo XX. The "Siglo XX" is subdivided into 1895-" (entries 2214-2298) "1895-1960" (entries 2299-2626) and "1960-" (entries 2627-2973).

Works on a particular region, province, city, or town during the colonial period, the nineteenth century, or the twentieth century are listed under "Historia regional" or "Historia urbana" in volume two. Works having to do with a particular region, province, city, or town during the independence period, however, are entered under "La independencia y bajo la Gran Colombia (1809-1830)" in volume one. This is not altogether logical, but it makes as much sense as the alternative arrangement because the majority of works on the struggle for liberation from Spain and the subsequent separation from Colombia appear to be primarily studies of the independence period and secondarily of a specific region, province, city, or town. Again recourse to the index of subject headings will guide the reader to the relevant works.

Another aside is in order at this point. There is no one correct way to arrange a bibliography. By the same token "there is no one correct way to determine 'aboutness'"1 The most that one can hope to achieve is an arrangement that for the most part will guide scholars and students to the materials they should consult, and an assignation of more or less appropriate subject headings that will lead researchers to the majority, if not to all, of the specific works they seek. In this regard, it should be noted that I initially assigned some works to divisions and subdivisions on the basis of the subject headings proffered by catalogers rather than upon the basis of personal perusal (not always possible), only to discover subsequently that some of the works in question would fit better or in fact belonged elsewhere. But there comes a moment in the life of every bibliography when one must bring it to a halt and launch it in the hopes that its usefulness will outweigh its shortcomings.

Volume two opens with biographical and related materials. The "great man" approach continues to be cultivated by many, perhaps the majority of, Ecuadorian scholars as evidenced by the substantial number of works on "protohombres" listed under "Biografías" (2974-3703). Biographies of women, mostly notable women but also some of women of lesser fame and fortune, however, began to appear in the closing decades of the twentieth century.

Volume two continues with "Historia de la cultura," "Historia de la Iglesia," "Historia de la medicina," "Historia demográfica," "Historia diplomática y legal," "Historia regional y estudios relacionados," and "Regionalismo." "Historia de la cultura" is divided into "Obras generales y misceláneas" (entries 3704-3759), "Arte y arquitectura" (entries 3760-4045), "Ciencias" (entries 4046-4102), "Educación" (entries 4103-4307), "Ideas" (entries 4308-4429), "Lenguas y lingüística" (entries 4430-4542), "Literatura" (entries 4543-4745), "Literatura folklórica y folklore" (entries 4746-4865), and "Música, teatro, radio, y televisión" (4866-4955). Each of these sections includes materials on late-twentieth-century and therefore, at the time of their publication, "recent" developments, events, and persons.

"Historia de la Iglesia" consists of two subsections on "Historia eclesiástica" (entries 4956-5227), and "Iglesia y Estado" (entries 5228-5296). "Historia eclesiástica" and "Iglesia y Estado" consist mostly of historical materials. The next two sections, "Historia de la medicina" (entries 5297-5383) and "Historia demográfica" (entries 5384-5436), include only historical studies and published sources. Materials on recent or late twentieth-century health problems and health care appear under "Higiene pública y medicina" in volume three, and those having to do with post-1949 demographic developments under "Población," also in volume three.

"Historia diplomática y legal" is divided into "Legislación" (entries 5437-5532), "Límites" (entries 5533-5731), and "Relaciones exteriores" (entries 5732-5833). I have listed only those studies that are primarily historical in coverage or nature and major compendia of laws and regulations in the "Legislación" subsection. Nonetheless, I have included every guide to legislation of which I am aware and for which I was able to establish a satisfactory description in order to facilitate the task of other researchers.

"Historia regional y estudios relacionados" consists of six subsections corresponding to the six macroregions of Ecuador: "Galápagos" (entries 5834-5871), "Costa norte" (entries 5872-5912), "Costa centro-sur" (entries 5913-6067), "Sierra centro-norte" (entries 6068-6303), "Sierra sur" (entries 6304-6427), and "Oriente" (entries 6428-6582). The "Costa norte" may be thought of as the modern Province of Esmeraldas. The "Costa centro-sur" consists of the modern Provinces of Manabí, Los Ríos, Guayas, and the lowlands of El Oro. The "Sierra centro-norte" corresponds more or less to the modern Provinces of Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Chimborazo, and Bolívar, and the "Sierra sur" to the modern Provinces of Cañar, Azuay, and Loja, and the highlands of El Oro.

The "Sierra centro-norte" also included the "Gobernación de Popayán" during the colonial period, or what is now southern Colombia, then an integral part of the Audiencia/Presidency of Quito. Similarly the Sierra sur took in Jaén de Bracamoros (part of Peru since the independence period) during the colonial period. I have listed only a few key works on sixteenth-, seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and early-nineteenth-century Popayán, Pasto, and Jaén and their districts, however, because their histories are usually written as though they always belonged, or should have belonged to modern Colombia and Peru, respectively. The "Oriente" takes in the modern Provinces of Sucumbios, Napo, Pastaza, Morona-Santiago, and Zamora Chinchipe, and as one goes back in time, those parts of Amazonia ceded to Colombia and taken over by Peru.

Volume two closes with the section on "Regionalismo." Although regionalism is touched upon to a greater or lesser extent in various works on the colonial and national periods, as of July 1997, there were surprisingly few studies that focus primarily on this topic (entries 6583-6593).

Volume three consists of four sections, "Historia urbana y estudios relacionados." "Economía y Geografía," "Etnografía," and "Sociedad," the latter three of which are largely given over to studies of events and developments of the second half of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, "Descripciones y viajes," the opening subsection of "Economía y Geografía," includes accounts of explorers and travelers from the seventeenth century onward and geographical studies of the nineteenth as well as of the twentieth century. Some materials from the first half of the twentieth century will also be found in the "Condiciones económicas" subsection and the "Etnografía" and "Sociedad" sections, not that all that many studies of continuing value in the Social Sciences were done prior to the 1960s. The first ethnography of a community based on field work, for example, did not appear until 1945 (item 8103).

"Historia urbana y estudios relacionados" is divided into "Obras generales y misceláneas" (entries 6594-6636), "Ambato" (entries 6637-6653), "Cuenca" (entries 6654-6719), "Guayaquil" (entries 6720-6892), "Ibarra" (entries 6893-6904), "Latacunga" (entries 6905-6908), "Loja" (entries 6909-6914), "Otavalo" (entries 6915-6925), "Quito" (entries 6926-7110), "Riobamba" (entries 7111-7124), and "Otras ciudades y pueblos" (entries 7125-7181). Even though Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca--in that order--clearly dominate the subdiscipline of urban history, a substantial number of significant studies of other cities and towns are known to exist, not all of which are listed here because I was unable to find copies or establish adequate descriptions thereof.

"Economía y Geografía" is divided into "Descripciones y viajes " (entries 7182-7473) and "Condiciones económicas" (entries 7474-7931). In general, works on late-twentieth-century economic policies and economic history appear under "Historia: Período Nacional: Siglo XX: 1960-." Deciding what should be included under "Historia: Período Nacional: Siglo XX: 1960-" rather than under "Condiciones económicas" was not a simple matter, however, and readers interested in economic developments from the 1960s through the 1990s should consult both subsections.

There is a substantial body of ethnographic and related literature on Ecuador, much more in fact than is registered here. The "Etnografía" section is divided into "Obras generales y misceláneas" (entries 7932- 7966), "Litoral," "Sierra" (entries 7990-8068), and "Oriente" (entries 8127-8144). Although general ethnographical studies of the coast do not seem to exist, at least not as of July 1997, there were several works on the three western lowland groups that have maintained their identity: the "Awa / Coaiquer" (entries 7967-7971); "Chachi"--popularly known as Cayapas--(entries 7972- 7980); and "Tsatchilas," or Colorados (entries 7981-7989).

In addition to the general and miscellaneous studies of Indians of the highlands, there is a substantial body of literature on the distinctive groups, specifically on the "Cañaris" (entries 8069-8087), "Otavaleños" (entries 8088-8111), "Salasacas" (entries 8112-8115), and "Saraguros" (entries 8116-8126).

Interestingly enough there appeared to be appreciably more ethnographic studies of Indians of the Upper Amazon Basin, especially of the Achuar and the Shuar (formerly grouped together as "Jívaros") than of Indians of the highlands (entries 8127-8144 for the Oriente at large and 8145-8302 for specific groups). The agreed upon ,and as of the first half of the 1990s still existing, ethnic groups are the "Achuar" (entries 8145-8159), "Canelos Quichua" (entries 8160-8177), "Cofanes" (entries 8178-8184), "Huaorani"--formerly known to the outside world as Aucas (entries 8185-8201), "Quijos Quichua" (entries 8202-8205), "Shuar" (entries 8206-8291) and "Sionas / Secoyas" (entries 8292-8302).

Ethnohistorical studies are listed under the appropriate History and Regional History sections or subsections. The Regional History subsections include materials on ethnic groups that no longer exist (e.g., the Omaguas). Unfortunately, upon preparing the subject index, I discovered that I had not been altogether consistent in assignation of ethnohistorical materials. Some therefore appear under the Ethographic section and subsections. My apologies in advance to the reader, but it did not seem worthwhile to delay the appearance of this bibliography simply in order to reshuffle some entries.

The "Sociedad" section is divided into "Condiciones sociales" (entries 8303-8398), "Estadística" (entries 8399-8513), "Higiene pública y salud" (entries 8514-8626), "Mujer" (entries 8627-8681), and "Población" (entries 8682-8814).

Volume four consists of the indexes (author, subject, and series) to this work. The indexes have been placed in a separate volume to facilitate consultation and utilization of this bibliography.

Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador intentionally takes in much more than historical studies and coeval sources. Yet that is how it should be. In the first place, almost all materials are grist to the historian's mill in the fulness of time. In the second place, the lines between History and the Humanities, on the one hand, and between History and the Social Sciences, on the other, are blurred in the Latin American countries. Intellectuals have been crossing the line almost from the beginning of historiography in Ecuador. Pablo Herrera (1820-1896) and Pedro Moncayo (1807-1888), for example, were literary critics as well as historians, and more recently novelists and short story writers such as Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco (1908-1993) and Nelson Estupiñán Blas (1915-) have also written history or what passes for history.

Furthermore, the cultivators of the "new history" in Ecuador have been heavily influenced by the paradigms and ideological baggage of the Social Sciences. This is not surprising. Many of the scholars responsible for much of the late twentieth-century historical production here within described and discussed took their professional training in Anthropology, Economics, Political Science, or Sociology--not in History--or were trained, at least in part, by Social Scientists. Furthermore, it could be argued that in Ecuador the past as perceived is as much a handmaiden of ideology and politics, as History as it has emerged as a discipline is driven by ideology and politics.

But this is not the place to engage in discourse on the strengths or the shortcomings of historiography in Ecuador. What matters here is that almost all, if not all, publications and doctoral dissertations in the Humanities and Social Studies on Ecuador are of interest and, sooner or later, of importance to historians.

In closing, it cannot be over emphasized that the historiography of Ecuador, "traditional" as well as "modern," is much more abundant than many Ecuadorianists--including myself until I undertook this work--realize.

REPOSITORIES AND RESOURCES

Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador is based on nearly four decades of research, more than seven years of which were spent in Ecuador itself. Over the years I have consulted many, but hardly all, libraries, several private collections, and several dozen archives and museums in the two primary cities of Quito and Guayaquil and in the most important of the secondary cities, Cuenca.

I first set foot in Ecuador in 1962. My initial interest in that country might never have born fruit, however, if I had not met and been captivated by the guayaquileña who became and remains my spouse. (Fui, vi, y fui vencido.) Because I made a promise to Carmen Victoria Flores de Hamerly to take her home as often as possible and because I continue to be intrigued by Ecuador, we have returned time and time again--most recently in July 1997 insofar as this bibliography is concerned--initially in search of material for my doctoral dissertation (entry 5975) and subsequently to undertake research on other topics.

I also undertook research for this and other work on Ecuador in libraries and other depositories in the United States (at libraries of the University of Washington, the University of Florida, Duke University, the University of Northern Colorado, the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Guam, Brown University, the University of Massachusetts, and at the Library of Congress, the Academy of American Franciscan History, the National Archives, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, and the John Carter Brown Library) and at one time or another in various archives, libraries, and museums in Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Israel, Spain, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. This bibliography would be far less substantial, however, were it not for the CD-ROM and hard copy versions of the Handbook of Latin American Studies (Madrid: Ediciones Mapfre, 1995; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1936-1951; Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1951-1978; Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980-), the National Union Catalog--indispensable for completing and verifying citations of older materials--and for the increasing number of online public access catalogs (opacs) available through Telnet.

I relied primarily on MELVYL and UTCAT and secondarily on SABIO and TOME. MELVYL is the more-or-less integrated online catalog or system of the libraries of the Universities of California and the California State Library. UTCAT is the online catalog or system of the University of Texas at Austin. SABIO and TOME are the online catalogs or systems of the University of Arizona and the University of New Mexico, respectively. MELVYL and UTCAT were searched systematically (i.e., by authors, titles, subjects, and series). SABIO and TOME were spot checked to flesh out incomplete records and to verify dubious citations not found in MELVYL or UTCAT, sometimes successfully, sometimes in vain. (N.B. I ended up limiting systematic research to "Western" opacs because accessing "Eastern" opacs proved to be problematic, given the difference in time between Guam and the eastern half of the United States and the amount of traffic on those systems. More often than not I could not get into Eastern opacs, and when I did manage to connect, I would be bumped sooner or later during the search session.)

As of May 9, 1996, the MELVYL system contained 5,628 not necessarily discrete records of ecuatoriana. On that same day, there were 7,023 not necessarily discrete records relating to Ecuador in the UTCAT system. The libraries of the University of Arizona and of the University of New Mexico also have substantial holdings of ecuatoriana. Again as of May 9, 1996, a subject search of SABIO yielded 2,022 subjects, with 4,047 entries beginning with or containing the descriptor "Ecuador," and a subject search of TOME, 2,316 subjects, with 5,063 entries beginning with or containing the descriptor "Ecuador." (There is nothing significant about May 9, 1996; it just happens to have been the day it occurred to me to go online to obtain these statistics.) Because many works have several subject headings and inasmuch as some records are redundant because of discrepancies in description, the actual numbers of discrete records of ecuatoriana in MELVYL, UTCAT, SABIO, and TOME are somewhat less than the above figures seem to indicate.

Ideally OCLC, or the Online Computer Library Center, should also have been culled for additional records and to complete and verify records that I had to set aside. But access to this bibliographic utility was not available to me in Guam, where I was an Associate Professor/Professor of Library Science between 1988 and 1998. In this regard, it should also be noted that the World Wide Web has augmented and continues to augment the number and availability of databases, another development, however, that occurred too late for purposes of this work.

Nonetheless, I am reasonably certain that I have seen one or more records of almost all books published in Ecuador, elsewhere in Latin America, the United States, and Europe on the history of Ecuador and related topics, as of December 1995. I have also seen many of the actual works themselves. But at the same time it should be noted that some important works have eluded me. In this regard, it should be noted that there are a number of official publications, particularly messages of heads of state and compendia of documents pertaining to their terms in office, that should have been included. But we remain very much in the dark when it comes to official publications of Ecuador, records of which continue to be woefully inadequate. The most recent guide, at least as of July 1997, to this country's monographic government documents, although still useful, appeared as long ago as 1947 (entry 148). Furthermore, records of other government publications, at least of the Latin American countries, in the National Union Catalog and in the opacs of the United States tend to be sketchy and more often than not, unreliable.

Turning to articles, in addition to the Handbook of Latin American Studies, I also worked my way systematically through the hard copy versions of: 1) Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, rev. ed. (6 v. in 7; Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1963) for the years 1802-1906; and 2) the title variant International Index to Periodicals / International Index: a Guide to Periodical Literature in the Social Sciences and Humanities / Social Sciences & Humanities Index (27 v.; New York: Wilson, 1907-1974), and its offspring Humanities Index (New York: Wilson, 1975-) and Social Science Index (New York: Wilson, 1975-), for the years 1907-1995. I also consulted: 3) the CDROM version of MLA International Bibliography; and the hard copy versions of: 4) Abstracts in Anthropology (Farmingdale, New York: Baywood, 1970-); 5) HAPI, Hispanic American Periodicals Index, vol. 1, 1970/1974- (Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, 1975-); 6) Historical Abstracts (Santa Barbara: ABC Clio, 1955-); 7) Public Affairs International Service Bulletin, but only for the years 1968-1990 (New York: Public Affairs Information Service, 1968-1990); and its successor (8), PAIS International in Print (New York: Public Affairs Information Service, 1991-); 9) Benito Sánchez Alonso, Fuentes de la historia española e hispanoamericana, 3 ed., corr. y puesta al día (3 v.; Madrid: Publicaciones de la Revista de Filología Española, 1952); and Sánchez Alonso's successor (10), Historiografía y bibliografía americanista, which has had a confusing history.2

Therefore it is probable that I have seen records of almost every North American and European article in a book or periodical in the Humanities and the Social Sciences published on Ecuador through December 1995, and in the majority of cases the actual texts thereof. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of every Latin American article in a book or periodical published on Ecuador through December 1995, inasmuch as not all Latin American anthologies and periodicals are abstracted or indexed. Of course over the years I have worked my way through runs of many Ecuadorian periodicals and anthologies in the Humanities and the Social Sciences, but I was unable to lay hands on some serials known to contain historical studies or all issues of those serials I was able to consult.

In this regard, permit me to quote Bernard Lavallé:

Por supuesto, la ambición de todo trabajo de este tipo es la de ser lo más completo posible. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, no dejó de acompañarnos el convencimiento íntimo de que la meta propuesta, la exhaustividad, no era sino ilusoria y que al final no faltarán algunos trabajos que, desgraciadamente, hayan escapado de nuestra vigilancia.3

And to add that I have already begun to prepare a supplement to Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador not only to maintain it as current as possible, but also to add pre-1996 publications of significance that I was unable to include in this work.

Insofar as doctoral dissertations are concerned, in addition to the professional literature itself and the above mentioned indexes and abstracts, I relied on the still useful, but regrettably discontinued, bibliographies put out some years ago by University Microfilms International: 1) Latin America and the Caribbean: A Dissertation Bibliography, edited by Carl W. Deal (1977); 2) Latin America and the Caribbean II: A Dissertation Bibliography, Marian C. Walters, editor (1980); and 3) Latin America: A Catalog of Current Doctoral Dissertation Research (1983). Unfortunately, the bibliographic descriptions, especially the collation statements, in UMI products are not AACR2 compatible in every respect. But I had to accept the data as given in some instances because I was unable to reconcile the differences in every case. Again it must be remembered that I did not have access to OCLC.4

Doctoral dissertations available only from their authors have not been included, given the difficulty in obtaining copies thereof. Unpublished licentiate or master's degree theses were also excluded, not out of any sense of snobbery, but because bibliographic control of "theses" as opposed to "dissertations" is still in the process of being established, and because I had already embarked on an ambitious enough task.

A MATTER OF STYLE

In preparing this work, I have been guided by the principles of bibliographic description laid down in: Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 rev. (Chicago: American Library Association; Ottawa: Canadian Library Association; London: Library Association Publishing Limited, 1988); Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 4th ed., (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1995);and The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), and therefore also in Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed., revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). Not wholly satisfied with any of the existing norms for bibliographic description, however, I decided to devise my own: a hybrid, as it were, of the formats worked out by advocates of International Standard Bibliographic Description, the editors of the Handbook of Latin American Studies, and some historians. Although sui generis, the documentation system I employ is a variant of the Humanities style (not of the author-date system).

N.B. Although Bibliografía histórica del Ecuador is AACR 2r compatible, I did not adopt the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules format in whole nor accept AACR 2r records blindly for three reasons. In the first place, I saw no point in including statements of responsibility in the case of works produced by one, two, or three authors. In the second place, AACR 2r is not always user friendly. And in the third place, I felt and still feel it absurd to be bound by the errors of omission and comission, especially those relating to "main entry" and "name authority," in AACR 2 and 2r records.

CITATION NUMBER: Each entry has been assigned a unique citation number, beginning with 1. The citations numbers are given in boldface. Numbers combined with letters have also been used for the purpose of keeping together series that constitute specific sets (e.g., the seven volume set on the restoration of the Iglesia y Convento Mayor de Santo Domingo [entries 3989 and 3989a-3989g] or the Libros de cabildos de la ciudad de Quito [entries 7066 and 7066a-7066l]).

ORTHOGRAPHY: Diacritics have been respected. So too have the peculiarities of spelling. The bibliographic particulars of works in European languages employing Roman alphabets (including East European variants) have been transcribed as they appear. Statements of responsibility, place of publication, and series statements, therefore, are given in the language of the work, and as they usually appear in modern catalog records. Entries in Russian and therefore in Cyrillic, however, have been transliterated. Apparently there are no works, at least no original works, in Greek, Turkish, Hebrew, or Arabic on the history of Ecuador. Glottal stops in American Indian languages have been transcribed as apostrophes (i.e., by the symbol ').

NAME OF AUTHOR: Names are given in library catalog or inverted order (i.e., family name[s], given name[s]). To have listed names in "normal order" (i.e., given name[s] followed by family name[s]), as observed by the American Historical Association in the 3rd ed. of its Guide to Historical Literature (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995; 2 v.), would be cavalier inasmuch as not everyone can be expected to know which is which, especially in the case of compound names. Forms of names known to be preferred by individual authors and editors have been respected for the most part. Fuller or more distinctive forms of names, however, have been employed when needed to distinguish between one author and another. Cross references from unused forms are given in the "Indice de autores."

Ecuadorian and therefore Spanish usage has been preferred. Hence a work by Carlos de la Torre Reyes, for example, is entered under "De la Torre Reyes, Carlos," not "Torre Reyes, Carlos de la." For name authority I have relied heavily on the cumulative author (corporate body as well as personal) index to Bibliografía retrospectiva ecuatoriana e índice acumulativo 1978-1985 (entry 20), and on the good offices of my friend and fellow bibliographer Dr. Miguel Díaz Cueva, who has been sharing his in-depth knowledge of ecuatoriana with me for more than thirty years.

DATES OF AUTHOR: Dates of authors are given in the "Indice de autores" whenever I have been able to ascertain them. The sources do not always agree as to the years of birth or death for every author. In cases of discrepancy, the usually agreed-upon year(s) or the year(s) Díaz Cueva assures me to be correct have been preferred.

ATTRIBUTION OF AUTHORSHIP: Anonymous works are entered under title. Works published under a pseudonym are entered under the author's real name, when known. Linkage is given in the "Indice de autores." It has not been possible, however, to ascertain the identity of every author who published under a pseudonym. I do not know, for example, who the Jorge Juan was who wrote on the first fall of Velasco Ibarra and the early days of the Páez dictatorship (entry 2471). Similarly, it has not been possible to establish fuller forms of names of all authors who have the same first and last names in order to distinguish between them. Even "middle" initials are not always distinctive. To wit, there are two "Eduardo N. Martínez": Eduardo Nalo Martínez and Eduardo Neptalí Martínez.

WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR: In a succession of works by the same author or authors, the name of the author or names of the authors are given for each entry. Employment of spaces or hyphens in lieu of names does not work well in a lengthy bibliography. To require the reader to scan backward or upward in order to determine authorship of an entry is to impose an unnecessary burden simply for the sake of adherence to style.

MAIN ENTRY: Scholars and librarians, including academic librarians, disagree as to principles of primacy. Therefore a digression regarding main entry is in order. Works authored by one person are entered under that person's name in inverted order. Works authored by two or three persons are entered under the first person named under that person's name in inverted order and under the second person or the second and third persons named in normal order, separated by semicolons. I decided to employ semicolons rather than commas to separate authors because even native Spanish speakers sometimes confuse given and family names. No less an authority than the Instituto Bibliográfico Hispánico, for example, has mistaken Jorge Juan Santacilia and Antonio de Ulloa de la Torre-Giral as brothers, simply because that Jorge Juan did not use his matronymic.

Works authored by four or more persons are usually entered under the work's title. Books authored by four or more persons, therefore, are entered under title except for conference proceedings, of which more in a moment. Articles authored by four or more persons are always entered under title. Works issued by corporate bodies are also entered under title unless: 1) the work deals with the corporate body itself or the corporate bodies involved; 2) the work is a law or regulation; 3) the work is an official pronouncement of a corporate body; or 4) it is a work of a collective nature reporting activities of conferences, expeditions, or events that can be defined as corporate bodies. The rule of four or more applies to corporate bodies too. Also when I lacked sufficient information to establish the responsible corporate body or was in doubt as to whether the main entry should be under corporate body or title, entry under title was preferred. (For a more complete discussion of the principles of main entry, see chap. 21 of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 rev.)

Conference and congress (including symposium) proceedings are entered under the established name of the conference, congress, or symposium. Partial or session-specific proceedings, however, are entered under the title of the corresponding publication, as are conference and congress (including symposium) proceedings for which sufficient data are lacking to establish the conference, congress, or symposium's name.

STATEMENT OF RESPONSIBILITY: Inevitably, therefore, some statements of responsibility have had to be included. Four or more authors are reduced to the first individual or entity named, followed by the standard "et al." within square brackets. Editor and translator statements are usually transcribed literally, but superfluous information such as titles and institutional affiliation have been omitted unless inclusion is needed for reasons of grammar. Also some serial titles, especially generic titles such as Memoria or Revista, require linkage with their corresponding institutions. So too do such generic series titles as "Working papers." Therefore, statements of responsibility have been added to serial and series titles on a need basis (see, for example, entries 496-501), but instead of the space, solidus, space (i.e., " / ") of catalogers, a comma followed by a space between title and statement of responsibility has been employed.

TITLE OF WORK CITED: Titles of articles, books, and dissertations are almost always given in full. Only a few exceptionally long titles have been truncated. Titles of books and serials are italicized. Titles of articles appear between quotation marks. Titles of unpublished dissertations are neither italicized nor set off by quotation marks.

EDITION: The edition of the work cited follows the title or the statement of responsibility in the case of a title main entry article or book, separated from the former or the latter by a comma.

SERIAL TITLE: Serial titles are given in full and italicized.

PUBLICATION DATA: The volume or issue number, or both, are given for the serial in which an article appears, followed by the year of publication within parentheses. Whenever ascertainable, the corresponding month or season of publication is given too. The place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the year(s) of publication are given for books regardless of when they were published. In a few instances of pre-1900 imprints, the publisher has not been specified because it was not possible to ascertain this datum, not because some style manuals permit the exclusion of imprint data for pre-twentieth-century publications. Who published or printed a work prior to 1900 is just as important as who published or printed a work after 1899, at least to bibliographers.

Angle brackets (i.e., the symbols < and >) are employed to designate temporary data in the case of what were or appear to have been ongoing but not yet complete publications at the time this bibliography was compiled. Every effort, however, has been made to close older records in the case of completed sets, records that no doubt will continue to appear as ongoing in far too many library catalogs.

PAGE NUMBERS: Inclusive page numbers for an article in a serial or a chapter in a book are given after the date of publication in the case of an article in a serial and following the publication data in the case of an article or chapter in a book. The number of pages in books (i.e., separately printed monographs) and the number of volumes in multi-volume works are also given.

SERIES TITLES: Series titles have been kept to a minimum and are enclosed within parentheses at the end of the bibliographic description. Associated institutions have been added when needed to distinguish between generic titles.

ANALYTICS: Authors and titles of specific contributions to anthologies and to conference or congress proceedings are given together with page numbers, when known, in contents or partial contents notes. Sometimes, however, author-specific entries are listed separately. Of course this is to be stylistically or format inconsistent, but again the niceties of style have been sacrificed in order to provide users with appropriate entries. Some "contributions" just seem to belong together whereas others appear to warrant separate attention. That may not be logical, but then there is little or no consistency in the world of bibliography, merely agreed upon but not necessarily adhered to conventions.

ALPHABETICAL ORDER: Word-by-word file order has been observed. Single word family names precede multiple word family names. Word spacing and punctuation have been taken into account. Initial articles are respected whenever they constitute an integral part of a personal name or of a place name (i.e., El Oro, La Paz, Los Ríos, etc.). Insofar as initial letter is concerned, traditional Spanish alphabetical order has been observed. Names, titles, subject headings, and series beginning with Ch, Ll, or Ñ follow names, titles, subject headings, and series beginning with C, L, or N. Works entered under a jurisdiction as a corporate body (e.g., Cuenca) are listed before works entered under a title or titles beginning with the same word as the name of a place (e.g., Cuenca).

INDEXES: Entries are indexed by author, subject, and series.

SUBJECT HEADINGS: Modified Library of Congress subject headings have been employed. The primary differences between orthodox Library of Congress subject headings and my version thereof are: 1) a chronology somewhat different from what the Library of Congress employs has been adopted, one more in keeping with how contemporary Ecuadorian scholars view the watersheds in their past. Also I am more inclined to resort to chronological breakdown by century rather than by such macro periods as "To 1809." 2) I have employed the subject headings "Economic history" and "Social history," broken down by century(ies), rather than "Economic conditions" and "Social conditions" whenever appropriate. 3) Towns and villages are identified by province inasmuch as not everyone can be expected to know, for example, that Pucará is a small campesino community in southwestern Azuay. 4) "Indígenas del Ecuador" instead of "Indios de la América del Sur -- Ecuador," has been used. Furthermore, ethnic designates currently in use in Ecuador such as Shuar or Achuar instead of Jivaro Indians are employed. See references are given in the "Indice de encabezamientos de materias" for readers accustomed to other terminology.

DATABASING VIS-A-VIS WORD PROCESSING

This work was word processed, initially using WordStar 4.0 and 6.0 for DOS. Subsequently it migrated to WordPerfect 5.0 and 5.1 for DOS, then to WordPerfect 6.0, 6.1, 7.0 for WINDOWS, and finally to WordPerfect 8.0 for WINDOWS. Had I to do it all over again, I would have used a database instead of a word processing program. Certainly using a database program would have made incorporation of additional materials as well as rearrangement of entries much easier. But for the longest time, I had to make do with computers that are dinosaurs by today's standards (not just 286s, but even 086s). Furthermore, no guidance or instruction in bibliographic utilities such as Nota Bene's Orbis or ProCite was available at the University of Guam. Also I had to purchase the majority of the more up-to-date, powerful, and sophisticated hardware (including quality printers) and software used in producing this bibliography myself because the administration of the University of Guam was begrudging in providing support. The staff of the University of Guam's Computer Center, however, was absolutely wonderful when it came to helping out with whatever they could.

NOTES

1Bohdan S. Wynar, Introduction to Cataloging and Classification, 8th ed., [by] Arlene G. Taylor (Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, Inc., 1992), p. 309.

2"Historiografía y bibliografía americanista" began as a section of the Anuario de estudios americanos, debuting in vol. 10 (1953) of the Anuario (Sevilla: Escuela de Estudios Hispano Americanos, 1944-). Between 1971 and 1990, Historiografía y bibliografía americanista appeared first as an annual and then as a semiannual in its own right, changing its title to Suplemento de Anuario de estudios americanos in 1987, and its enumeration at the same time to parallel that of the Anuario. In 1993, "Historiografía y bibliografía americanista" returned to being a section of the Anuario (50:1-).

3Bernard Lavallé, Bibliografía francesa sobre el Ecuador (1968-1993): ciencias humans, sociales y de la tierra (Quito: Corporación Editora Nacional: Maison des pays ibériques, 1995), p. 4.

4Subsequent to the closure of the database, I was able to access WorldCat, the public access module of OCLC. Although I was able to resolve some problems through the public access module of OCLC, WorldCat is not always bibliographically helpful inasmuch as it does not include statements of responsibility.

ABREVIACIONES

Abbreviations are those employed in Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 rev. (Ottawa: Canadian Library Association; London: Library Association Publishing Limited; Chicago: American Library Association, 1988), and Reglas de catalogación angloamericanas (Washington, D.C.: Organización de los Estados Americanos; Costa Rica: Biblioteca, Documentación e Información, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1983). Spanish usage has been preferred over English usage.