Ancient Mayan civilizations, first established around 320 AD throughout Central and Mesoamerica.  The Mayans, for the most part, were a relatively small people with a small number of Mayans permanently living in urban areas.  The Mayan people are well known for their architecture, seen most popularly through the ruins of Palenque, near southern Guatemala, their farming and cultivation, and strict religion.  Agriculture was a large part of the Mayan culture, and like many other tribes of the time, the Mayan people survived off of their produce, primarily maize.  Another important part of the Mayan people is religion.  The Mayan culture worshiped various gods for specific reasons and commonly practiced sacrifices, both animal and human.
Map of Mayan Empire